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Capstone for Part 3: Gravity's Rainbow

2020.09.21 18:00 EmpireOfChairs Capstone for Part 3: Gravity's Rainbow

Hello, everybody! It’s finally time to leave the Zone!
Can you believe that you haven’t even gotten to the most difficult part of the novel yet?
Anyway, I’ve included a massive plot summary here, because the last capstone had one, but this is only for the benefit of new and future readers who are struggling to make sense of the plot threads, and it doesn’t contain any real analysis. If you feel like you understood the gist of what happened already, then feel free to skip it. I am hoping that this summary will elucidate this part of the novel for those who are having trouble following the narrative but still want the opportunity to come to their own conclusions about what it all means.
Throughout In the Zone, I found my real life suddenly full of random obstacles that meant that I couldn’t contribute to as many threads as I would have liked. I would read those other threads and find that things which had fascinated me were either being ignored wholesale or else (I felt) misinterpreted in the comments. As such, I would like to give my thoughts on them here and now, before we leave the Zone and the opportunity to discuss these things is lost.
However, because the plot of In the Zone is so damn long, I’ve decided to do things a little bit differently: I’m going to use this main thread for the summary, and then I’m going to write individual comments on the various parts of In the Zone which I think deserve more analysis before we move on to The Counterforce. The parts I will be analysing will be titled Bianca, Enzian, and The Castle, with associated page numbers based around the 902-page Vintage edition.
Plot Summary:
As you would imagine, I can’t put a lot of detail into a brief summary of what would, on its own, still represent a fairly long novel. I’d like to apologise in advance if I happen to miss anything important, story-wise.
In the Zone opens with Slothrop in his new secret identity as British journalist Ian Scuffling, travelling by train trough the remnants of post-war Germany, the Zone, where he shall remain for most of the book. He meets a racist, jingoistic military man named Major Duane Marvy, who is promptly thrown off the train by a mysterious African ‘rocket-trooper’ named Orbst Enzian. Wandering through the Zone, Slothrop encounters Geli Tripping, a witch with an owl who reveals herself to be the lover of a murderous Soviet cyborg named Tchitcherine, who is involved with finding the Schwarzgerät; a one-of-a-kind V-2 rocket. Having apparently escaped Them, finding out what happened to this rocket then becomes the primary goal of Slothrop – his new epic quest.
Slothrop attempts to infiltrate the Mittelwerke, a vast SS-shaped underground tunnel complex, used by the Nazis to create V-2 rockets using slave-labourers from the nearby Dora concentration camp. He finds the place invaded by Marvy’s army, and the Russians – who both decide to murder Slothrop for discovering what seems to be… an ongoing operation? After his escape, Slothrop finds himself escaping to Berlin via hot-air balloon, only to be hunted by Marvy’s boys once more, but luckily the balloon is filled with custard pies, which are then thrown into the engine of Marvy’s aircraft, presumably killing most of them.
We come to learn more about Enzian, who turns out to have lived previously as a sex-slave to Weissman, a high-ranking German officer who participated in the Herero genocide that wiped out Enzian’s family. As time progressed, Enzian became Weissman’s Monster – the sinister, black right-hand man during his master’s involvement with the development of the V-2 rocket and the mysterious Schwarzgerät. In the Zone, with Weissman’s disappearance, Enzian has taken on a new, commanding role as the leader of the Schwarzkommando – a paramilitary death-cult made up of members of the Erdschweinhöhle (the death-obsessed Herero-survivors scattered throughout various communities in Nordhausen), who have made it their goal to find the Schwarzgerät. He even gets his own right-hand man in the form of the radio-enthusiast Andreas Orukambe. Among the Schwarzkommando, however, there is disagreement – some, like Enzian, believe in the destiny of destruction promised by the Rocket, whilst others, such as Ombindi of the Empty Ones, wish to initiate their own form of ‘racial suicide’, which uses sexual deviancy to ensure a negative birth-rate, which is seen as a triumph of material pleasure over the European ideals of Christian asceticism and death-worship.
Because of his quest to discover the Schwarzgerät, he is by default the arch-nemesis of Tchitcherine. Tchitcherine, we find out, is the long-lost half-brother of Enzian, their father having had a steamy affair with a Herero girl whilst in the midst of deserting the Russo-Japanese War. He grows up into a high-ranking agent of the Leninist Soviet regime, being principally tasked with giving the native people of Kyrgyzstan a new language (the New Turkic Alphabet), which isn’t historically accurate, by the way. During an uprising against conscription in 1916, thousands of native Kazakhs were killed, in an event which Tchitcherine refers to as the Kirghiz Light, which loses him his cosy, bureaucratic job. He is haunted by this light, which he sees as an illumination, a transcendent moment in which he saw the force behind it all. Sent out to the Zone, Tchitcherine has quickly adopted the new role of Rocket-fanatic, believing (like Enzian) that there is a spiritual force to be revealed to him in the Schwarzgerät. He is not entirely sure why his superiors sent him to the Zone, but he is absolutely convinced that it somehow involves Enzian and the Schwarzkommando.
Back to Slothrop, who briefly runs into Enzian again, only to be told, rather ominously, that reality is not real. Enzian, indeed, seems to treat his existence as though they were all conjured into being by some director or writer-God, and that all they can do is follow a pre-determined path to His ending. Weird. Anyway, Slothrop then meets Säure Bummer, the coolest man in the Zone – a proto-hippie drug dealer and money-counterfeiter, who suggests that Slothrop take on the superhero identity of Rocketman (which he does) and then advises him to travel to a bar to meet a contact (Seaman Bodine, the foul-mouthed sailor) who will show Slothrop the way to the Schwarzgerät in exchange for picking up a massive shipment of marijuana – located in the centre of the Potsdam conference. He is then to return with the product, which will be given to an influential Zone personality called der Springer, who will know Slothrop is cool because Säure has given him a chess-piece (a white knight) with which to identify himself. With this potential reward, along with part of the score and one million fake marks, Slothrop decides to haul ass to the conference. He invents another disguise (Max Schelpzig, the name on the fake ID which brought him to Europe in the first place) and sets forth, first by taking a boat into the Russian sector and then running on foot through an Autobahn, jumping the barricade into Potsdam. He gets the dope eventually, after a few awkward encounters with politicians and a few epic stealth moves, and then returns to his boat, where he is then drugged and dragged away, unconscious. Turns out, Tchitcherine has been watching him the whole time, and has just drugged him with the truth-serum/LSD stand-in Sodium Amytal.). He then tries out a huge chunk of Slothrop’s product with his right-hand man, Dzaqyp Qulan, and dumps Slothrop in an abandoned film studio. Waking up, Slothrop encounters Greta Erdmann, a pre-war pornographic actress, who is searching the studio in the hopes of finding her daughter, Bianca, who was conceived at this very studio, with a man named Max Schelpzig, during the filming of German director der Springer’s movie Alpdrücken. Slothrop confides that he isn’t so sure that he’s not in a movie right now.
Meanwhile, the Argentinian anarchists of Squalidozzi find themselves in a submarine, longing for the Zone to become a permanently decentralised monument to the freedom of the individual, in stark contrast from what is happening back home, in their native Buenos Aires. They believe in the power of art to inspire revolution, and desire to work with der Springer to create a film version of Martin Fierro which will force their revolution into existence – just as his propaganda films seemed to will the Schwarzkommando into existence.
Quite the opposite kind of person is then introduced to us: Franz Pökler, a Nazi engineer who worked on the V-2 rocket and the Schwarzgerät under the command of Weissman (now calling himself Captain Blicero). Pynchon shows us basically all of Pökler’s adult life, in a non-linear order. What happens, in short, is this: Pökler is inspired to become a rocket-engineer after taking university lectures in chemistry via Laszlo Jamf, the Pavlovian who somehow conditioned Slothrop as a baby to get erections during V-2 rocket strikes, decades before the V-2 was invented. He marries Leni Pökler, a communist reactionary who will drift apart from him as Weimar Germany becomes the hotseat for a new form of Evil. After watching the late-night premiere of Alpdrücken, Pökler runs home and impregnates Leni with their only child, Ilse. Raising her, he feels compelled to instil within her a desire to travel to the Moon, which is handily reinforced with frequent visits to Zwölfkinder, an amusement park run entirely by children. With Leni gone, Pökler falls deep into his work for the Nazis. As time goes on, he begins to question the nature of his work – is what he is doing just as Evil as what They are doing? Blicero and the other higher-ups catch wind of this, and, to prevent sabotage, Ilse is removed from Pökler’s life. He realises that bringing up the topic will result in termination, possibly of his life, and so he keeps on with the rocket work. He then sees Ilse again, delivered to him at his office without a note, and is advised to go to Zwölfkinder with her, which he does. She disappears the next day. This happens year after year on the same day, with Pökler gradually developing a harrowing fear that she died in the first year, and was replaced by a similar-looking girl. On their final visit to Zwölfkinder, after the Nazi defeat, they find the park empty, and ‘Ilse’ no longer likes the Moon. She tells him that they will no meet again. He returns to the office to find that it has been bombed to smithereens – interesting, isn’t it, how this just so happened to occur on the same day that Pökler goes on his holiday? Bewildered, Pökler travels to the location that Ilse and Leni were supposedly being held, only to find himself in the middle of the Dora concentration camp.
We then encounter the quick story of Horst Achtfaden, another Nazi engineer who, whilst on-board a possibly imaginary “Toiletship” vessel, is captured by Enzian and the Schwarzkommando, who demand that he reveal to them the location of the Schwarzgerät. Deciding that the entire War was just a big joke and that it definitely isn’t worth dying for, he claims that he has no idea what they are talking about, but that there was a colleague named Narrisch who worked directly on the project, so maybe bother him instead.
Back to Slothrop, who is now following the slightly unhinged Greta Erdmann’s lead as she follows a hunch that she hopes will lead straight to Bianca. This leads to a coastal town near the Lüneberg Heath, where the glimpse of a shrouded figure in the mist sends Greta into hysterics before it disappears. As evening approaches, a party-boat named the Anubis drifts by the coast. Upon seeing it, Greta becomes convinced that Bianca is on-board, and jumps into the water after it. Slothrop swims after her, losing his entire Rocketman costume to the sea as he does so. He discovers that the ship is a massive upper-class, elite society orgy vessel - people are indulging in the most depraved sexual acts he has ever seen, all the time, all over the place. And as the night wades on, the centrepiece of this orgy commences – a young girl (Bianca) performs half of a Shirley Temple routine before being publicly humiliated and whipped by Erdmann, her mother. The following morning, Bianca enters Slothrop’s room and the two have sex. Later, a Japanese people-watcher named Ensign Morituri, who lived on the same coastal town that Slothrop was at when they saw the Anubis, relates the horrible truth of Erdmann’s past life. In the lead-up to her time with Slothrop, Erdmann, a fellow native of the town, had gradually gone insane with her partner Gerhardt von Goll, believing herself (for some reason) to be part-Jewish. As some sort of psychotic payback against the Nazis, she began dressing in a shroud and luring the local children out to the swamps, where she would role-play with them (her as Nazi, child as Jew) before drowning them. The figure Erdmann saw earlier is revealed to be a grown-up version of one of the few survivors of her serial-killings – a survivor only because Morituri was there to stop her.
Later, Slothrop endeavours to find Erdmann after she locks herself in her room out of guilt. However, she reveals that her guilt is out of a completely unrelated event – during her time at the Heath, she became the sexual associate of Captain Blicero, who is revealed to have gone insane whilst pursuing some kind of apocalyptic project with a sex-slave (a young boy named Gottfried, who has mysteriously disappeared…) and has now come to see himself as a mythic figure in a fantasy world, running through a different version of Germany from everyone else. During her career as a sex-icon, Blicero took Greta to a remote room in a petrochemical plant, filled with politicians and business tycoons, who introduced her to clothing made entirely out of a new form of plastic – she finds it so stimulating that she wanted to immediate get down and dirty with those around her, but was just as quickly led out of the room again, and, over time, left with a growing concern that she witnessed the birth of something too horrible to really get to the bottom of.
Shortly after this encounter, a major storm hits the Anubis, and many of the passengers, including Slothrop, find themselves thrown head-first into the Sea. Slothrop seems content that the ‘Fascist cargo’ of the ship will soon drown to death. Of course, he is not included – he is soon picked up by an illegal smuggler and sweet old lady called Frau Gnahb, who travels with her young descendant Otto. Reaching land the following morning, Slothrop quickly finds a white-suited man calling himself der Springer, who (after Slothrop shows him Säure’s chess-piece) reveals himself to be none other than Gerhardt von Goll. He is travelling with his friend, an ex-scientist named Narrisch. They all then hop on-board to journey to Peenemunde, where von Goll is immediately arrested by Russian authorities. Narrisch, angered by the whole thing, then forces Slothrop to accompany him as they do another deep-cover infiltration, this time of the Tchitcherine’s military base where they are keeping von Goll. Freeing von Goll, who is on Sodium Amytal, Slothrop finds himself kocking a guard unconscious and taking his uniform. Then, Slothrop and Narrisch run into Tchitcherine and Qulan, where they all get very confused about the uniforms, thus buying enough time for von Goll’s escape. Narrisch then decides to stay behind to fight off the Russians, to allow Frau Gnahb and the gang to get away safely.
Then, to Slothrop’s horror, they once more find the Anubis, where Slothrop is told that he will find his stash to give to von Goll in the engine room. Going on-board, he finds that no-one on the ship remembers or recognises him at all. He gets to the engine room, where the lights go out completely, and voices proceed to taunt and beat him. Frightened, he looks up to find the corpse of Bianca hanging from a noose, just above the stash. He gets it and runs, finding invisible hands grabbing his own as he tries to climb the ladder out of there.
Meanwhile, two older characters, Katje and Pirate, find themselves entwined with a counter-revolutionary force after the destruction of the White Visitation. Katje discovers a film by Osbie Feel which seems to reveal to her the whole Plan and how to combat it, whilst Pirate, on the other hand, has a psychic vision in which he discovers that people of those whom he had trusted are actually parts of Them, and, what’s worse, They know that he is watching them. Both Katje and Pirate begin to form a vague hope of something that can defeat Them, some kind of Counterforce…
Wandering homeless around the Zone again, Slothrop begins to wonder about his own family history, and the environmental damage wrought by his family’s paper company. Furthermore, he thinks back to his first American ancestor, William Slothrop, a pig-loving anti-establishment figure whose political pamphlet was burned on-masse by the Elite, and was then forced to return, defeated, to England. Slothrop once more meets both Marvy and the Schwarzkommando, neither of whom recognise him in the Russian uniform. We soon find out that Marvy is now in league with the Soviets, who have been extracting information about the Schwarzgerät from Narrisch and selling it back to Marvy. While this is going on, Slothrop finds Cuxhaven, where the local children ask him to become their mythical pig-hero, Plechazunga, as part of a pagan festival. Crashed by the cops, Slothrop takes refuge with a teenage girl, who wishes to escape with him, but refuses to leave when the time comes. Slothrop, on the road again, finds a slightly mad German child who demands that Slothrop help him find his lemming, which they fail to do, but Slothrop himself finds a pig, who accompanies him on his journey, which is interrupted by one evening in which Slothrop finds a fellow homeless wanderer named Franz Pökler, who he finds strangely relatable.
Meanwhile, we get to hear about Lyle Bland. Bland was a member of the Masons, though he did not care about the society in the same way that the other Masons seemed to. However, as time went on, he felt that he understood their rites and rituals in a way that the real members never did. He became connected to arcane magickal forces, creating nightly out-of-body experiences, saying on his deathbed that he would choose that night to break through to the Other Side and achieve transcendence. Bland’s life prior to this event was a mish-mash of government deals with mobsters, with the conniving blackmail techniques of intelligence agencies, with the grand conspiracies of international technology tycoons. This last one seems particularly interesting, don’t you think? Bland thinks so too, and he actually has quite a pet passion for a remarkable scheme involving pinball machines that are built to fail – the machines will, in fact, fail immediately after they are fixed. How? Good question.
The final Slothrop scene of In the Zone shows him once more with Bodine, running away from American troops and straight into a mansion which happens to be hosting the party of the century. Ditching his pig-costume in a closet, he takes up in a bedroom with a prostitute named Solange, who is actually Leni Pökler in a new identity. Meanwhile, Bodine runs into Major Marvy, who is here to have sex with a minority so that he can live out a racist power-fantasy. Bodine gives Marvy a vial of cocaine, which Marvy then stashes into his jacket. Later, the mansion is raided by American troops – Marvy, having sex with a minority, freaks it because of the coke he left in his pocket, runs to the closet to find the jacket, only to discover that his whole uniform is missing – the only outfit he can put on to escape is some sort of pig costume. The American troops then find him, ask him if he is Tyrone Slothrop, which Marvy agrees to, hoping that Slothrop hasn’t done anything too bad. He is then kidnapped and dragged into the woods by Muffage and Spontoon, the two hitmen hired by Pointsmen in a previous part of the book to find Slothrop, who proceed to drug and castrate Marvy.
The final section features Mossmoon and Scammony, two government boys back in England who gossip about Pointsman’s career ruination over the castration of Marvy, and the collapse of the whole Scheme. They uneasily discuss the role of homosexuality in government conspiracies. They reveal, finally, what Slothrop was supposed to do in Their Grand Scheme. He was supposed to begin the extermination of the black race. Oh well, they think. If he can’t do it, They will just have to develop different methods.
In the Zone ends on, or around, August 6th 1945 – the date of the atomic bomb strike on Hiroshima. It is also the celebration the Transfiguration.
Discussion Questions:
· Has it occurred to you that most of the dialogue in these sections would have been spoken in German?
· Why do you think the novel is divided into four parts, and what do you think separates them?
· What do you make of the use of the Wizard of Oz quote that begins this section? Quite interesting, especially considering that this is the only epigram that seems to have no reference point in the actual novel.
· What has changed between the beginning and the end of In the Zone?
· Many have expressed the view that Gravity’s Rainbow is not about WWII at all. In fact, Gravity’s Rainbow is about Vietnam. How do you feel about that interpretation, given the focus on the Zone here? More importantly, what does In the Zone tell us about the world in 1973?
· Do you believe that Gravity’s Rainbow is at all autobiographical?
· Why do you think Slothrop keeps becoming a superhero in these sections? What do superheroes and comic books mean to Pynchon?
· Some people have pointed out, with a particular focus on the episodes in which Slothrop wakes up in the studio and Katje finds Osbie Feel’s movie, that the plot is actually a giant film. How does that strike you, and how do you think that metafiction and the introduction of alternative mediums relates to the themes of In the Zone?
· In the Zone makes up literally half of the book. But why? What’s so important about it that could not expressed elsewhere?
· For that matter, what do you make of the Zone itself? Why do you think he wrote a book around it?
· Does Pynchon evoke the imagery of ghosts, magic, angels, demons, telepathy and other phenomena with genuine sincerity, or are we supposed to take these as metaphors for more grounded events?
· This section is far more epic in scope than the two preceding it. Did you encounter anything cool or interesting that you think we forgot about in the discussion threads?
· What do you make of the Rocket-cartel, and what do think Their grand plan actually is?
· What was your favourite episode of this part? Also, what was your favourite Pynchon-tangent or speech?
Previous Threads:
Sections 30-33
Sections 34-37
Sections 38-40
Sections 41-45
Sections 46-48
Sections 49-53
Sections 54-57
Sections 58-61
submitted by EmpireOfChairs to ThomasPynchon [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 14:04 finnagains China is in fact a pragmatic authoritarian oligarchy, not a dictatorship (r/Leftwinger) 21 Sept 2020

As the US presidential debates approach, and our grotesque candidates prepare to compete for Best Actor, with their supporting casts of pollsters, advance men, media shills, gestures coaches, focus groups, and allied technicians of mendacity, Americans of broad historical illiteracy, which is most of them, hear endlessly of the evils of China. Whether the evils exist doesn’t matter. The electorate won’t know the difference. Still, it might be amusing to think about the matter. How bad (as Ivanka would put it) is the Middle Kingston?
Permit me a more sanguine view than those of our leftover Cold Warriors. Let us start with what Beijing has done for its people. We might also find enlightening a comparison of today’s China with today’s America.
I know what China was in 1978 when Deng took over: a literally starving behemoth, among the poorest countries on earth, with people eating grass. Forty-two years later it has lifted several hundreds of millions from poverty, and the remaining poverty would not be recognized as poverty by the slum dwellers of India. Perhaps I err, but this seems to me both astonishing and admirable. No other country, ever, has done such a thing.
Overage Cold War hawks and salesmen for the arms makers like to say that China is “totalitarian,” which sounds appropriately terrible without meaning anything specific. How many people have been in a genuinely totalitarian and Communist country? I was in the Soviet Union when it still was the Soviet Union, and it closely matched John Bolton’s onanistic fantasies: grim, poor, intimidated, no stores or consumer goods, empty streets with cars only for the government, people sullen and dispirited. As we flew out on Aeroflot, people spontaneously broke into applause as we passed the Russian frontier.
This is not China. Walk the streets in Chengdu or Chongqing. Traffic (unfortunately) reaches American levels. You will see stores selling anything you would find in, say, Washington, running from cheap to pricey, large grocery stores tastefully decorated (a Chinese touch) with everything from staples to gourmet food. It is First World. This is fact, boys and girls. It is documentable. Go look. I have. You will also see, at least in Chengdu, many blocks of stores selling Buddhist artefacts, functioning temples well maintained, and monks in the traditional robes. None of this is what we are told to expect. It is what is there.
Restaurants flourish, from soup stalls to elegant, and night life is varied and great fun. (Here a guide to said night life.) There is, for example, an Irish pub, the Shamrock, which we much liked. Large districts exist of what might be called wide car-less alleys with dozens of restaurants with outside tables and typically Chinese gaudy neon everywhere. This is not Steve Bannon’s China.
From Its website: “Shamrock has the best sports telecasts in Chengdu! With five different satellite feeds we have you covered for rugby, football (round ball) Aussie rules, cricket, NBA, golf, tennis, boxing, and UFC. Wondering how to find out more about what telecasts are on? We have our website listing, you can also ADD us on WeChat or alternatively just give us a call or email for more info on what and when telecasts are coming up.”
Conservatives of formidable economic illiteracy speak of China as a communist dictatorship. The government, perhaps not wanting to admit a mistake, calls itself communist. Geriatric hawks make themselves foolish by referring to “Chicoms,” but China is in fact a pragmatic authoritarian oligarchy, not a dictatorship, and communist countries do not have hundreds of thousands of private businesses. You cannot criticize the government and the Great Firewall of China blocks the international internet. Not good, but…totalitarian? Try North Korea.
US commentators speak of China’s intolerance of Christianity. The intolerance exists. But the Chinese have reasons. Remember that Christianity, however heretical, cost China fourteen years of godawful bloody warfare during the Tiaping Rebellion of the 1850's and perhaps millions of dead. It was probably enough Christianity for them. And of course, they can look at the US and see the havoc caused by diversity of religion, race, ethnicity, and so on. They probably figure they don’t need any.
Americans also grouse that fentanyl, which they usually pronounce “fentanol,” comes from China, just as Mexicans complain that the weaponry of the drug cartels comes from the US. True in both cases, but it is a bit of a leap to attribute either to governmental hostility rather than freelance criminality. Regarding drugs, we might remember that China has had bitter experience of Eurowhites. Americans have compelled the Chinese to buy opium by force of arms, though the government desperately opposed this. Maybe turnabout is fair play.
American troops have also occupied Chinese ports by force. American soldiers have rampaged through Beijing, raping, looting, and killing for sport. The Chinese are aware of this. Americans can usually find their way home at night.
People in the US speak of China’s brazen aggressiveness. Chinese aggressiveness? Did China invade Iraq, killing hundreds of thousands? Has China spent almost twenty years butchering Afghans, militarily seized Syria’s oil, supported Saudi Arabia in a murderous war against Yemen, supervised the destruction of Libya, bombed Somalia? Does China try to starve Iran and Venezuela into giving Washington control of their oil? Does China push its (nonexistent) NATO vassals ever closer to Russian border? Yes, China is an international menace. No one can doubt it.
Aggressiveness? True, America has only a piffling few military bases around the world, a mere scattering of about 800, while the aggressive China, always shameless, has one, at Djibouti. Today, the Horn of Africa. Tomorrow, San Francisco. My God, we must gird our loins, send more money to the Pentagon. Next thing we know, the squinty-eyed bastards will be dating our daughters at Harvard. (Though, come to think of it….)
China spends heavily on education and R-and-D. It has not caught up with America in everything, but advances rapidly. America buys intercontinental nuclear bombers of no apparent purpose. The above is a mag-lev train now in development, to run at 373 miles an hour.
Consider America as it must look to a citizen of, say Chongqing. It looks barbaric. The United States is neck deep in violent crime; China has almost none. This is not because of watchfulness by police, but because violent crime is not in the culture. You don’t need police to keep people from doing what they are not going to do anyway. In American cities, murder is so common as barely to be noticed by the newspapers: 700 a year in Chicago and several times as many shot, 300 in Baltimore, similar numbers in a couple of dozen other cities. America seethes in racial hatred; China, blessedly having only one race to amount to anything, does not. Many tens of thousands in America live in medieval squalor on the sidewalks or in the subways; not in China. China beat Covid and goes about its business (friends there tell me that things are back to normal). America…never mind.
Does China mistreat its Islamic Uighurs? Yes, and might even if America were not trying to stir up a Jihadi rebellion there, as it is in Hong Kong. Not good at all. Is it worse than the US? Maybe. Note, though, that America’s Africans have lived in wretched circumstances for four centuries, currently wallowing in semi-literacy, drugs, social collapse, and hopelessness. None of these is changing in the Exceptional Country.
Much can be, and is, said against China, and a lot of it is true. But Americans are in no position to do the saying.
Socialist_
submitted by finnagains to BritishCommunist [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 14:03 finnagains China is in fact a pragmatic authoritarian oligarchy, not a dictatorship (r/Leftwinger) 21 Sept 2020

Leftwinger
As the presidential debates approach, and our grotesque candidates prepare to compete for Best Actor, with their supporting casts of pollsters, advance men, media shills, gestures coaches, focus groups, and allied technicians of mendacity, Americans of broad historical illiteracy, which is most of them, hear endlessly of the evils of China. Whether the evils exist doesn’t matter. The electorate won’t know the difference. Still, it might be amusing to think about the matter. How bad (as Ivanka would put it) is the Middle Kingston?
Permit me a more sanguine view than those of our leftover Cold Warriors. Let us start with what Beijing has done for its people. We might also find enlightening a comparison of today’s China with today’s America.
I know what China was in 1978 when Deng took over: a literally starving behemoth, among the poorest countries on earth, with people eating grass. Forty-two years later it has lifted several hundreds of millions from poverty, and the remaining poverty would not be recognized as poverty by the slum dwellers of India. Perhaps I err, but this seems to me both astonishing and admirable. No other country, ever, has done such a thing.
Overage Cold War hawks and salesmen for the arms makers like to say that China is “totalitarian,” which sounds appropriately terrible without meaning anything specific. How many people have been in a genuinely totalitarian and Communist country? I was in the Soviet Union when it still was the Soviet Union, and it closely matched John Bolton’s onanistic fantasies: grim, poor, intimidated, no stores or consumer goods, empty streets with cars only for the government, people sullen and dispirited. As we flew out on Aeroflot, people spontaneously broke into applause as we passed the Russian frontier.
This is not China. Walk the streets in Chengdu or Chongqing. Traffic (unfortunately) reaches American levels. You will see stores selling anything you would find in, say, Washington, running from cheap to pricey, large grocery stores tastefully decorated (a Chinese touch) with everything from staples to gourmet food. It is First World. This is fact, boys and girls. It is documentable. Go look. I have. You will also see, at least in Chengdu, many blocks of stores selling Buddhist artefacts, functioning temples well maintained, and monks in the traditional robes. None of this is what we are told to expect. It is what is there.
Restaurants flourish, from soup stalls to elegant, and night life is varied and great fun. (Here a guide to said night life.) There is, for example, an Irish pub, the Shamrock, which we much liked. Large districts exist of what might be called wide car-less alleys with dozens of restaurants with outside tables and typically Chinese gaudy neon everywhere. This is not Steve Bannon’s China.
From Its website: “Shamrock has the best sports telecasts in Chengdu! With five different satellite feeds we have you covered for rugby, football (round ball) Aussie rules, cricket, NBA, golf, tennis, boxing, and UFC. Wondering how to find out more about what telecasts are on? We have our website listing, you can also ADD us on WeChat or alternatively just give us a call or email for more info on what and when telecasts are coming up.”
Conservatives of formidable economic illiteracy speak of China as a communist dictatorship. The government, perhaps not wanting to admit a mistake, calls itself communist. Geriatric hawks make themselves foolish by referring to “Chicoms,” but China is in fact a pragmatic authoritarian oligarchy, not a dictatorship, and communist countries do not have hundreds of thousands of private businesses. You cannot criticize the government and the Great Firewall of China blocks the international internet. Not good, but…totalitarian? Try North Korea.
US commentators speak of China’s intolerance of Christianity. The intolerance exists. But the Chinese have reasons. Remember that Christianity, however heretical, cost China fourteen years of godawful bloody warfare during the Tiaping Rebellion of the 1850's and perhaps millions of dead. It was probably enough Christianity for them. And of course, they can look at the US and see the havoc caused by diversity of religion, race, ethnicity, and so on. They probably figure they don’t need any.
Americans also grouse that fentanyl, which they usually pronounce “fentanol,” comes from China, just as Mexicans complain that the weaponry of the drug cartels comes from the US. True in both cases, but it is a bit of a leap to attribute either to governmental hostility rather than freelance criminality. Regarding drugs, we might remember that China has had bitter experience of Eurowhites. Americans have compelled the Chinese to buy opium by force of arms, though the government desperately opposed this. Maybe turnabout is fair play.
American troops have also occupied Chinese ports by force. American soldiers have rampaged through Beijing, raping, looting, and killing for sport. The Chinese are aware of this. Americans can usually find their way home at night.
People in the US speak of China’s brazen aggressiveness. Chinese aggressiveness? Did China invade Iraq, killing hundreds of thousands? Has China spent almost twenty years butchering Afghans, militarily seized Syria’s oil, supported Saudi Arabia in a murderous war against Yemen, supervised the destruction of Libya, bombed Somalia? Does China try to starve Iran and Venezuela into giving Washington control of their oil? Does China push its (nonexistent) NATO vassals ever closer to Russian border? Yes, China is an international menace. No one can doubt it.
Aggressiveness? True, America has only a piffling few military bases around the world, a mere scattering of about 800, while the aggressive China, always shameless, has one, at Djibouti. Today, the Horn of Africa. Tomorrow, San Francisco. My God, we must gird our loins, send more money to the Pentagon. Next thing we know, the squinty-eyed bastards will be dating our daughters at Harvard. (Though, come to think of it….)
China spends heavily on education and R-and-D. It has not caught up with America in everything, but advances rapidly. America buys intercontinental nuclear bombers of no apparent purpose. The above is a mag-lev train now in development, to run at 373 miles an hour.
Consider America as it must look to a citizen of, say Chongqing. It looks barbaric. The United States is neck deep in violent crime; China has almost none. This is not because of watchfulness by police, but because violent crime is not in the culture. You don’t need police to keep people from doing what they are not going to do anyway. In American cities, murder is so common as barely to be noticed by the newspapers: 700 a year in Chicago and several times as many shot, 300 in Baltimore, similar numbers in a couple of dozen other cities. America seethes in racial hatred; China, blessedly having only one race to amount to anything, does not. Many tens of thousands in America live in medieval squalor on the sidewalks or in the subways; not in China. China beat Covid and goes about its business (friends there tell me that things are back to normal). America…never mind.
Does China mistreat its Islamic Uighurs? Yes, and might even if America were not trying to stir up a Jihadi rebellion there, as it is in Hong Kong. Not good at all. Is it worse than the US? Maybe. Note, though, that America’s Africans have lived in wretched circumstances for four centuries, currently wallowing in semi-literacy, drugs, social collapse, and hopelessness. None of these is changing in the Exceptional Country.
Much can be, and is, said against China, and a lot of it is true. But Americans are in no position to do the saying.
Socialist_
submitted by finnagains to Socialist_ [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 14:01 finnagains China is in fact a pragmatic authoritarian oligarchy, not a dictatorship - 21 Sept 2020

As the presidential debates approach, and our grotesque candidates prepare to compete for Best Actor, with their supporting casts of pollsters, advance men, media shills, gestures coaches, focus groups, and allied technicians of mendacity, Americans of broad historical illiteracy, which is most of them, hear endlessly of the evils of China. Whether the evils exist doesn’t matter. The electorate won’t know the difference. Still, it might be amusing to think about the matter. How bad (as Ivanka would put it) is the Middle Kingston?
Permit me a more sanguine view than those of our leftover Cold Warriors. Let us start with what Beijing has done for its people. We might also find enlightening a comparison of today’s China with today’s America.
I know what China was in 1978 when Deng took over: a literally starving behemoth, among the poorest countries on earth, with people eating grass. Forty-two years later it has lifted several hundreds of millions from poverty, and the remaining poverty would not be recognized as poverty by the slum dwellers of India. Perhaps I err, but this seems to me both astonishing and admirable. No other country, ever, has done such a thing.
Overage Cold War hawks and salesmen for the arms makers like to say that China is “totalitarian,” which sounds appropriately terrible without meaning anything specific. How many people have been in a genuinely totalitarian and Communist country? I was in the Soviet Union when it still was the Soviet Union, and it closely matched John Bolton’s onanistic fantasies: grim, poor, intimidated, no stores or consumer goods, empty streets with cars only for the government, people sullen and dispirited. As we flew out on Aeroflot, people spontaneously broke into applause as we passed the Russian frontier.
This is not China. Walk the streets in Chengdu or Chongqing. Traffic (unfortunately) reaches American levels. You will see stores selling anything you would find in, say, Washington, running from cheap to pricey, large grocery stores tastefully decorated (a Chinese touch) with everything from staples to gourmet food. It is First World. This is fact, boys and girls. It is documentable. Go look. I have. You will also see, at least in Chengdu, many blocks of stores selling Buddhist artefacts, functioning temples well maintained, and monks in the traditional robes. None of this is what we are told to expect. It is what is there.
Restaurants flourish, from soup stalls to elegant, and night life is varied and great fun. (Here a guide to said night life.) There is, for example, an Irish pub, the Shamrock, which we much liked. Large districts exist of what might be called wide car-less alleys with dozens of restaurants with outside tables and typically Chinese gaudy neon everywhere. This is not Steve Bannon’s China.
From Its website: “Shamrock has the best sports telecasts in Chengdu! With five different satellite feeds we have you covered for rugby, football (round ball) Aussie rules, cricket, NBA, golf, tennis, boxing, and UFC. Wondering how to find out more about what telecasts are on? We have our website listing, you can also ADD us on WeChat or alternatively just give us a call or email for more info on what and when telecasts are coming up.”
Conservatives of formidable economic illiteracy speak of China as a communist dictatorship. The government, perhaps not wanting to admit a mistake, calls itself communist. Geriatric hawks make themselves foolish by referring to “Chicoms,” but China is in fact a pragmatic authoritarian oligarchy, not a dictatorship, and communist countries do not have hundreds of thousands of private businesses. You cannot criticize the government and the Great Firewall of China blocks the international internet. Not good, but…totalitarian? Try North Korea.
US commentators speak of China’s intolerance of Christianity. The intolerance exists. But the Chinese have reasons. Remember that Christianity, however heretical, cost China fourteen years of godawful bloody warfare during the Tiaping Rebellion of the 1850's and perhaps millions of dead. It was probably enough Christianity for them. And of course, they can look at the US and see the havoc caused by diversity of religion, race, ethnicity, and so on. They probably figure they don’t need any.
Americans also grouse that fentanyl, which they usually pronounce “fentanol,” comes from China, just as Mexicans complain that the weaponry of the drug cartels comes from the US. True in both cases, but it is a bit of a leap to attribute either to governmental hostility rather than freelance criminality. Regarding drugs, we might remember that China has had bitter experience of Eurowhites. Americans have compelled the Chinese to buy opium by force of arms, though the government desperately opposed this. Maybe turnabout is fair play.
American troops have also occupied Chinese ports by force. American soldiers have rampaged through Beijing, raping, looting, and killing for sport. The Chinese are aware of this. Americans can usually find their way home at night.
People in the US speak of China’s brazen aggressiveness. Chinese aggressiveness? Did China invade Iraq, killing hundreds of thousands? Has China spent almost twenty years butchering Afghans, militarily seized Syria’s oil, supported Saudi Arabia in a murderous war against Yemen, supervised the destruction of Libya, bombed Somalia? Does China try to starve Iran and Venezuela into giving Washington control of their oil? Does China push its (nonexistent) NATO vassals ever closer to Russian border? Yes, China is an international menace. No one can doubt it.
Aggressiveness? True, America has only a piffling few military bases around the world, a mere scattering of about 800, while the aggressive China, always shameless, has one, at Djibouti. Today, the Horn of Africa. Tomorrow, San Francisco. My God, we must gird our loins, send more money to the Pentagon. Next thing we know, the squinty-eyed bastards will be dating our daughters at Harvard. (Though, come to think of it….)
China spends heavily on education and R-and-D. It has not caught up with America in everything, but advances rapidly. America buys intercontinental nuclear bombers of no apparent purpose. The above is a mag-lev train now in development, to run at 373 miles an hour.
Consider America as it must look to a citizen of, say Chongqing. It looks barbaric. The United States is neck deep in violent crime; China has almost none. This is not because of watchfulness by police, but because violent crime is not in the culture. You don’t need police to keep people from doing what they are not going to do anyway. In American cities, murder is so common as barely to be noticed by the newspapers: 700 a year in Chicago and several times as many shot, 300 in Baltimore, similar numbers in a couple of dozen other cities. America seethes in racial hatred; China, blessedly having only one race to amount to anything, does not. Many tens of thousands in America live in medieval squalor on the sidewalks or in the subways; not in China. China beat Covid and goes about its business (friends there tell me that things are back to normal). America…never mind.
Does China mistreat its Islamic Uighurs? Yes, and might even if America were not trying to stir up a Jihadi rebellion there, as it is in Hong Kong. Not good at all. Is it worse than the US? Maybe. Note, though, that America’s Africans have lived in wretched circumstances for four centuries, currently wallowing in semi-literacy, drugs, social collapse, and hopelessness. None of these is changing in the Exceptional Country.
Much can be, and is, said against China, and a lot of it is true. But Americans are in no position to do the saying.
Socialist_
submitted by finnagains to leftwinger [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 05:00 jdante88 Coming out to you guys

So I have been trying to write this down for the better part of the month but I just don't know what to actually write.
2020 has been a very interesting year for me, lots of hardship came along with the year and lots of time to just reflect. After many years of tiptoeing on the issue, at 32 I think I am finally able to say that I am bisexual. I have been attracted to some men for quite some time but I always dismissed it as I was more often attracted to women. In my head, being bisexual meant that I would be attracted to those people at the same frequency which I have now learned is not how it goes.
I am now in this weird phase where I have admitted that fact to myself but the years of repressing it still controls my action when say I find a person of the same gender attractive. I have this internalized personal homophobia which I find hard to deal with. I will clearly be attracted to a person and I will feel...odd(or bad? idk how to explain it) about it, finding any excuse to just neutralize that feeling. That one really surprised me as I was always close to the LGBTQ+ community. And the upside though, I am now learning what type of men I am mostly attracted to (feminine men it turns out which is funny because I tend to date woman who are more 'masculine').
I haven't come out to anyone else (hence the alt account) and I know for a fact that I cannot come out to 99% of my family (extremely Evangelical Christians). Overall, I just wanted to get that off my chest and ask for some advice especially with the whole internalized personal homophobia (or whatever it is called)?
submitted by jdante88 to bisexual [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:54 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery (Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.)

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
https://philosophy.ucla.edu/person/brian-copenhave
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library & The Embassy of the Free Mind
https://www.youtube.com/c/EmbassyoftheFreeMind/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
https://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
https://brill.com/view/serial/ARBS?language=en
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to realwitchcraft [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:44 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Books, Websites, Blogs & More Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery

Crossposted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
https://philosophy.ucla.edu/person/brian-copenhave
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library & The Embassy of the Free Mind
https://www.youtube.com/c/EmbassyoftheFreeMind/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
https://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
https://brill.com/view/serial/ARBS?language=en
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to witchcraft [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:33 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Sources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery Books, Websites, Blogs and etc.

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
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submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to occult [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:31 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Pre-1800's Occult Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.

Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
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2020.09.18 14:01 softflannel Newly-out lesbian (32) unsure about the future with gf (23)

I've just spent several hours reading through posts to see if I could find something relatable, but nothing felt quite right, so I'm making my own request for insight.
I had reservations from the beginning about dating someone in their early 20s. I know young people can be exceptional, accomplished, and thoughtful. But, I changed so much between ages 20-30, and I think most people experience the greatest transformations in their fundamental selves during this time.
This is a long post, so TL;DR: I love my gf, and many things are great, but I feel like I'm missing something that I need, and I think it's because of our age gap.
My Backstory:
While I was busy doing all of the things I was always doing (working internationally, graduate school, etc), I failed to realize that my disinterest in sex with my husband was because I was actually a lesbian and never going to find men particularly interesting in that way. I ended my loving, if sexually challenged, marriage and moved in with my sister. For a timeline, I came out to my husband in June of this year, moved in with my sister towards the end of that month, and randomly met the girl who became my gf less than a week after moving.
I had a gf for a few months in high school, but we didn't make it past kissing because I was coming off a lot of post-Christianity hangups over physical intimacy. I thought our relationship failed because I wasn't actually gay since I didn't try to have sex with my gf. It didn't help that she told me precisely that and I, without other queer friends or community, decided to believe her. So, my current gf is my first real, genuine, self-actualized relationship with a woman, and it has been the fucking bomb.
Everything feels so easy. I feel emotionally close to her (something I struggled with with my husband despite being best friends). She is smart, smokin' hot, and a good communicator. I always considered myself to have a high libido until I got married and then it tanked. Well, the libido is back, back, back with phenomenal force. Turns out it makes a difference to be with a matched orientation partner. Go figure.
We've been together for a couple months now, and while everything is going well in many regards and feels effortless in areas I'm used to feeling anxious over, I feel like something's missing. The only thing I can think of as an explanation is our age gap. I feel like our stages are fairly miss-matched. She dropped out of college during her second year (no judgement as I also dropped out for a few years), she was raised in the Mormon church while being queer which gave her some nice trauma to work through, and she is figuring out what she wants to do with her future. As for me, I just graduated with an advanced degree in health care, I was living as a repressed lesbian for decades and was married almost 10 years, and I have already done the lion's share of working through my childhood trauma (you're never done).
In case you're unaware, lesbians have a reputation for moving very quickly in their relationships. I thought it was a bogus generalization, but I didn't make the rules, and when we both admitted to loving each other during our first month together it felt fast and terrifying and true.
I'll make some categories and bullet points to explain my dilemma.
Good:
Worries:
I have talked to my gf about my concerns, and she thinks we have something special that's worth fighting for. I'm just not sure. I don't feel like anything is wrong, per se, just that something is missing. I don't feel confident in our relationship. But I don't know if that's because I have unrealistic standards. I don't want to throw away something that is really wonderful in many regards, but I'm uncomfortable that I'm having these concerns after only 2 months together. And, frankly, I didn't end a marriage that was in many ways fulfilling so that I could get into another relationship that was missing something I need.
I feel like it will be hard to meet someone who I would consider "the whole package" because my dating pool is much smaller than for hetero couples, but I also don't want to stop looking. And if I have found that person in my current gf, I don't want to throw her away because I just don't have good perspective. I love her, I miss her when we're apart, but I know that you need more than love. And to be clear, she doesn't think I'm perfect or anything; but she does think we're LTR material.
If we break up, the ideal I would have for my next partner would be someone who is more experienced with life, established in their career and their sense of self, and who challenges me and helps me grow the same as I do for them. And great sex, naturally. I feel like if I met my gf 3-5 years from now, she might be that person. But I don't know what that means for what I should do now. :(
Thanks for reading all of this, and I appreciate any insight and advice.
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2020.09.15 11:51 sterlin718 What Is Your Life Really Worth?


Through the Easter period, many persons around the world celebrate the important Christian holiday in which they remember the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. It's a time for reflection on how the sacrifice which was made a large number of Celebrity Net Worth years back still impacts the lives of numerous persons today.

Although we may not readily list it as one of the assets on our personal balance sheets, the gift of life is priceless. Regardless of the challenges and difficulties that'll discourage us from time to time, it is definitely an abundant blessing to get a later date to see what life has in store for us.

Does income determine your value?

In the event that you wanted to quantify the worth of your daily life, can you put a price tag on your own existence? To be able to seek a financial settlement in legal cases that involve wrongful deaths, lawyers often try to calculate just how much possible income has been lost from the untimely passing of an individual.

If the individual was a low-income earner, then your worth that they would place on their life will be significantly less than that of an individual who'd earned an important sum. Although the money requested would never replace the individual, it could help offset a number of the expenses for those left behind.

I think that the worth of your daily life cannot only be assessed financially, as your worth is a lot more compared to money you will make through your lifetime. How do you measure all different influences you will have on the lives of your household, friends, colleagues and neighbours?

Unlike tangible assets such as for example your savings, real estate or stocks which derive their value mainly from their internal components, the actual worth of your daily life could be judged by what you do externally. Basically, your value increases in direct proportion to how many other lives that you impact.

A tale of two lives

Robert was a wealthy corporate mogul who drove himself to achieve business. During his lifetime, he operated many profitable enterprises and invested wisely. When he died, he'd a net worth of over a thousand dollars and an exceptionally lucrative portfolio of assets across the world.

Very near Robert's upscale neighbourhood lived Mable, a sprightly old lady who'd cleaned houses for many her life. Her subsistence income was usually distributed to the more needy persons in her community, when she died there is just enough to pay for her funeral expenses.

Mable and Robert were buried on a single day in exactly the same church, but at different times. Robert's brief ceremony was attended with a few family members and close business partners. There have been no tears shed for Robert, and everyone hurried away quickly following the proceedings.

Although he'd gained much wealth in his life, Robert's personal accomplishments were very limited.He had little free time and energy to spend along with his wife and children, and they disliked him intensely. His colleagues had respected his business acumen, but had little regard for him as a person.

The actual value of a life

On one other hand, Mable's funeral brought out hundreds of mourners from all degrees of the society. The church was packed and overflowed to three huge tents outside. The service extended for all hours as lots of persons wanted to share their memories of this remarkable woman.

During her life Mable had given the small she had to greatly help the children in her community, and she had enabled many to secure higher learning. Through her efforts, countless lives had been improved, and the recipients of her generosity were eager to share how she had assisted them.

If you'd to find out which person was worth more, you might easily choose Robert, along with his financial holdings that put him in the elite two per cent of income earners. Mable would definitely not be classified as a high-net-worth individual, so she couldn't match up against the wealthy Robert.

However, if you place aside their portfolio valuations, could you still say that Robert's contribution to the world was well worth more than Mable's? How about the worth of the multiplier effect of the time, effort and love that Mable poured into the lives of most those neighbourhood children?

Raise your real value

During in 2010 when we think on the life span of Christ which was sacrificed for mankind, it can be an excellent opportunity to think about your attitude towards wealth and worth. Do you think that having more money can make you more important, more respected or maybe more valuable in this world?

While society might dictate that boosting your wealth will increase your net worth, your true value will increase when you positively impact those around you. Search for opportunities to serve others without expecting an incentive, and you might enrich yourself and the world with techniques you didn't expect!
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2020.09.14 23:51 Competitive_Bid7071 Paganism promotes Christianity.

I’m not a Christian but I’ve come across this post that seems to claim Paganism promotes christianity is this true or not, Anyways here’s the post:
“My explanations make up for deficiencies you see in Christianity at large as a faith or a religious community; but we all benefit from a deeper mutual understanding. I am certainly richer as a Christian and a human being for my understanding of different Pagan practices and beliefs from my time as a practising Pagan (primarily of the Celtic variety).
It's absolutely true that there is no immediate contemporary evidence for the existence of Jesus but that truly isn't very remarkable. To non-Christian contemporaries Jesus was barely worth paying attention to - he was, in their minds as you say, the leader of a small fringe Jewish cult, and not someone the Romans or the Jews had much need to write about. There are similar problems with confirming the existence of Socrates or Alexander the Great: the truth is it's very difficult to find surviving records from most of these periods because no one was thinking "this will be big history in 2020!". For all three men, we rely on the accounts of people who knew them and/or lived soon after them to know about their lives. If you want to deny Jesus' existence based on a lack of contemporary documentary evidence, you probably need to also deny the existence of Socrates, Alexander the Great and a large number of other ancient figures.
If you were going to make up someone to follow, Jesus isn't terribly logical as a choice. You could invent a Messiah who much better fits the expectations of 1st Century Judaism - you would probably not have called him 'Jesus', for one, because as you note the name is utterly unremarkable. If your goal was power and influence, then you probably wouldn't have had Jesus give the authority to build a Church to Peter, a working class, illiterate fisherman. It's very doubtful you would have John the Baptist in your story at all as someone who is shown, even momentarily, to have some kind of role over Christ. You almost certainly wouldn't have your grand narrative of Jesus' life end in his brutal execution at the hands of the Roman authorities in Israel with the man who becomes the founder of the Church, Peter, depicted as a traitor to the cause who weeps with guilt at what he's done. Instead of having Jesus die and rise again, your story would probably focus on having Jesus win some immense miracle victory over the Romans and then ascend into Heaven triumphant - you would probably cut out the part where he dies and his followers despair. Scholars believe that the earliest books of the New Testament, some of the authentic letters of Paul, date to within two decades or less of Jesus' death; Paul, despite having been anti-Christian for some of his life, does not seem to be aware of any movement to deny Jesus lived. In the 3rd century the Pagan philosopher Porphyry wrote an extensive condemnation of Christianity; Porphyry did not attack the idea that Jesus existed but instead sought to depict Jesus as a false prophet. Bart Ehrman is one of the leading experts on early Christianity in the world: he is also an atheist. There isn't much of a case for suggesting Jesus didn't exist.
With regards to the burial of Jesus and the bribe, theserenitysystem is (totally understandably!) confusing two similar incidents. You're right that the Romans would not have taken the time to bury someone like Jesus. The Bible tells us that this was possible because a Christian sympathiser, possibly a Christian himself, who was in good standing within contemporary society went to Pilate on the night of the execution and asked if he could take Christ's body for burial, and this request was granted (Matthew 27:57 - 60; Mark 15:43 - 46; Luke 23:50 - 53; John 19:38 - 42). This is in fact directly relevant to your observation that crucifixion did not necessarily mean being nailed to a cross and often simply meant being hung or whipped to death on a tree. Ancient Jewish law held that the body of anyone executed on a tree was cursed, and that the land their body was kept on would be cursed until it was buried (Deuteronomy 21:22 - 23). Joseph - the follower who went to request the body - almost certainly persuaded Pilate to hand over the corpse of Jesus on the basis that if he did not do so, the local populace would think it an affront to their God and in keeping with Roman attitudes towards local religion, the best thing to do would be to let Joseph, as a man in good standing, bury the body safely (Joseph, of course, told the followers of Christ what he was doing and took care to give Jesus a decent burial). For Christians that Christ was executed in a way that is profoundly humiliating in ancient culture, and in a manner that the ancient Jews believed meant the deceased was cursed, is an important part of our understanding of what Jesus' sacrifice on the cross means: faced with God incarnate, instead of celebrating Him, we murdered him in the most violent, degrading, brutal way imaginable.
Matthew 25:29 is absolutely an interesting verse! But it's part of a parable; a simple, short story used to illustrate an ethical or moral perspective advocated by Jesus. It was one of the main methods of preaching employed by Christ in His earthly life. In this case, the passage you quote -Matthew 25:29 - is actually a call back to an earlier, identical saying of Jesus in Matthew 13:12. If you read 13:12 first you see that Jesus is using this phrase in reference to believers and non-believers. He explains to the Apostles that he teaches in parables so that those who do not truly listen to him will only hear the superficial story, whilst those who look for the deeper meaning - like the disciples did - will understand that within the story there are important moral and theological lessons. Matthew 25:14 - 29 is a parable that uses the imagery of money as an allegory for how Christians should behave in their faith on the understanding that the Earthly world will pass away; that they should be bold, knowing that change is coming. It follows on directly and explicitly from another parable about the faithful being prepared for the arrival of Christ in His Second Coming (Matthew 25:1 - 13). Just as that parable, which concerns itself with ten virgins, is not a literal story about ten virgins, neither is the parable of the talents concerned with financial affairs.
Matthew 26:8 - 11 has to be appreciated within the context of the particular event that moves Christ to say these things. In this situation, it is the Disciples chastising a well-meaning woman for wasting valuable ointment on Jesus when it could have been sold to benefit the poor. What the Disciples are doing here is not making the argument that these things are wasted economically; there is already the understanding and acceptance that Christ preaches the need to redistribute wealth and support the impoverished. Christ is instead accusing the Disciples of being unnecessarily harsh to the woman and focusing on the worth of her actions rather than considering the sincerity of her faith, and her genuine attempt to do something selfless. He is essentially saying "come on guys: are you really annoyed at the waste, or are you trying to show you're a better disciple than she is?". He is exposing pride disguising itself as charitable concern; concern trolling, essentially. The Lord's seemingly callous words here, about the poor always being with us, are in fact a call back to Deuteronomy 15:11 with its explicit instruction:
Since there will never cease to be some in need on the earth, I therefore command you, "Open your hand to the poor and needy neighbour in your land."
Matthew 10:34 - 37 is not a religious commandment to violence or division. First of all, 'hate' or its equivalent is not a word that appears in the original Greek text; a more literal translation is "whoever sees greater value in his mother or father than in me", not "whoever does not hate his family". The NRSV, the most widely accepted scholarly version of the Bible, renders the passage as "whoever loves father or mother more than me". This passage is a warning to followers of Christ that, at the time of Jesus' life, taking up his faith will make families cast them out and make parents turn against children. Christians are still called to answer this with the peace and love Christ commands in Matthew 22:39; the warning is that this peaceful evangelism will be met with exclusion, marginalisation and violence, as Christ himself demonstrated when his peaceful surrender to the authorities lead to his own brutal, torturous, slow murder at the hands of the Romans. The specific phrasing Jesus uses is a call back to Hebrew scripture once again, specifically to Micah 7:6, which describes a period of turbulence and violent unrest in ancient Judah in which "the son treats the father with contempt [...] your enemies are members of your own household". Christ is warning his followers that, just like in Micah's time, the Gospel will anger people so much they will condemn even their own children for following him. His message here is essentially: "Don't think I've come to cushion the truth just to make things easier. This is how things are, and if you want to follow me, people will marginalise and oppress you for it". The quote from Micah, incidentally, is further significant: Jesus quotes Micah twice, and one of the more notable parts of Micah is its condemnation of the hoarding of wealth (Micah 3:1-4), especially by religious leaders.
Matthew was written as a single volume to summarise its author's understanding of Christ's life and teachings from the source material available. Whilst passages out of context seem contradictory, read together, they make sense.”
Here’s more of this same posters argument:
“As someone who was a practising pagan when he was younger and is now a practising Christian, I can perhaps answer this for you (not to convert you or start a debate - simply in the interests of better mutual understanding, because there are too many misconceptions and bad theology-history on both 'sides').
When Paul the Apostle went to Ancient Greece in the 1st Century, he found in Athens a city in which there was a great deal of religious fervour and diversity; something contemporary records testify was the case - for example Pausanias' account of Athens in the 2nd century describes the Athenians as a people "conspicuous not only for their humanity but also for their devotion to religion", with some unique devotional practices. Pagan contemporaries found this both pleasing and alarming depending upon their own beliefs - the Bible tells us Paul was challenged as a spermologos by the latter, a term that effectively translates to 'someone who believes new things as indiscriminately as a bird picks up seeds'. For some the problem was that many of the gods were not Greek or otherwise compatible with Greek civic values (a charge also levelled against Socrates in his lifetime according to Plato); for others the problem was the intensity of the religious devotion these new quasi-faiths commanded. Some scholars think that when Christians arrived in Greece the Christian faith was mistaken by many to be a dualistic one, with a male God (Jesus Christ) and a female Goddess (Resurrection), and so there may have been debates about whether Christian teachings could mesh with Greek public life.
The Bible tells us that Paul was summoned by the Athenian authorities to explain exactly what he was preaching and why he was preaching it, to resolve their confusion and satisfy their curiosity. Acts of the Apostles records Paul's response to the questions he was given in that meeting, and it is here that we get the basis of the Christian understanding of our faith's place in the world as we understand it. Paul begins his sermon by proclaiming his genuine and sincere admiration for the level of religious belief in Athens (Acts 17:22). From here, he moves essentially into an argument against polytheism from the Christian perspective: Paul argues that if there is an ultimate power in the universe, an ultimate creator of all things, then it makes sense to believe "he does not live in shrines made by human hands, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mortals life and breath and all things" (17:24 - 25). It's important to understand this isn't Paul coming into the high authorities of Athens and mocking them: this was the kind of philosophical problem with which Greek society wrestled, and many in the audience would have already agreed with this proposition and been critical of religious practices that put a great deal of emphasis on specific rituals and the use of shrines and idols.
He argues further that all human beings are the same - that we all must be descended from a common ancestor and share a common blood (Acts 17:26). We have, all of us, been given an inherent desire to seek out the Divine and understand the nature of the universe - and God has never been far from us no matter what we believe (Acts 17:27). Here Paul is recalling much older Jewish teachings represented best in the 13th chapter of the Wisdom of Solomon, which describes most pagan beliefs - especially those rooted in nature - as coming from a place of good faith and a genuine desire to understood the Divine, but which focuses on the creation rather than the Creator. In other words, Paul conceives the worship of, say, a god of oceans and storms as a well-meaning and sincere attempt to understand God that takes the right evidence to come to the wrong conclusions. Paul quotes Aratus' Phaenomena, a piece of literature written centuries earlier, which (with Paul's quotation in bold) says:
From Zeus let us begin; him do we mortals never leave unnamed; full of Zeus are all the streets and all the market-places of men; full is the sea and the havens thereof; always we all have need of Zeus. For we are also his offspring; and he in his kindness unto men giveth favourable signs and wakeneth the people to work, reminding them of livelihood
In other words for Paul and the early Apostles, the existence of Zeus as the ultimate authority within the Greek pantheon - and who many Greeks believed gave the gift of life to humanity - logically invalidated the need for any other, lesser deity. If Zeus could have the power and authority to control the other gods and assign the boundaries of their rule then it therefore follows that Zeus must be capable of powers at the very least equal to, or greater than, those lesser gods; they become redundant. Again Paul is not just coming in and pronouncing all of this: he is engaging with philosophical and theological debates that the Greeks themselves were having about their own religion and the nature of the divine. He essentially sees in Zeus and the beliefs some Greeks have about Zeus a representation of the monotheistic God of Christianity - incomplete in understanding but identical in substance. So Paul is not challenging the sincerity of their belief or even the realness of their deities: instead, he is respectfully challenging the nature of the Divine they believe in, and calling into question the internal consistency of mainstream religion in Athens.
Paul describes this pre-Christian period as the time of ignorance (17:30). Ignorance is a word that seems harsh in our modern English language and is best understood in the original Greek the New Testament was written in: the state of being in agnoia, or lacking knowledge in a subject. The exact same word is used earlier in Acts of the Apostles to describe Jewish monotheistic beliefs about God (3:17). In other words the ignorance Paul speaks of is not stupidity and it is not a unique and special wrong that comes from believing in Zeus over the Jewish God: there was simply a time for much of human history when God engaged with humanity on different terms and in different ways, and during which it was easier for human beings to come to the wrong conclusions about the nature of God. As it is put in another place in Acts, "in past generations he allowed all the nations to follow their own ways, yet he has not left himself without a witness in doing good" (Acts 14:16 - 17). Where there has been good and righteousness, God has had a hand in it, but in the past He has not been concerned with the specifics of religious faith or belief.
Paul concludes his sermon with the turning point in God's relationship with humanity: the coming of Jesus Christ, through who, as the living incarnation of God, the true nature of God has been revealed. For most Christians this has to be understood within the context of a world view in which human beings as a whole (not necessarily as individuals - I, like many, do not believe in original sin) have built a degraded society with strong inclinations to promote behaviour that is selfish, greedy, violent and destructive, and in which it is impossible to life a morally perfect life. For us if God is supreme in intelligence and power it therefore follows that God is supreme and infinite in love and moral goodness. In the incarnation of Jesus Christ, God chose the perfect moment in the course of human events to reveal himself to the world with the greatest possible impact on it; the incarnation of God in Christ represents the end of one chapter in the relationship between humanity and the Divine and the opening of a new chapter. Through Christ is is possible to understand God's truest nature as a being of complete and unconditional love with a design to save human beings, both in this life and the next, from the mess of a world we've made for ourselves.
Within this framework, it is perfectly possible for Christianity to take certain elements of traditional cultural practices and remodel them in a Christian fashion to better help people connect to and understand the Gospel; simply because something has pagan origins does not mean it lacks the ability to connect with or be relevant to God. But there is, conversely, a balance in considering what can be authentically Christianised - what can be taken up within our faith as a celebration and modernisation of historic interactions with the Divine - versus what practices or beliefs take someone away from understanding God as He was revealed in Christ; i.e. as one singular, supreme, all loving deity. At the same time however it is a very clear warning to Christians to not, as too many people do, treat pagan and other religious beliefs as simple, demonic or evil; they are still to some extent the product of many hundreds of years of authentic encounters with divinity and with the works of God. The Christian perspective embodied by Paul in Athens instead emphasises that we should treat other faiths as sincere attempts to understand and have a relationship with God, with followers who are just as intelligent and devout as ourselves, but instead view those faiths as incomplete rather than maliciously false.
Like many progressive Christians, I accordingly believe that the Bible preaches that very, very nearly everyone who has ever lived or ever will live on Earth will ultimately end up in Heaven - a faithful Christian life on Earth is simply a matter of getting to that eternity of love and paradise a little bit faster, and getting to share in the joy of Christ in our Earthly lives. But as Paul says, wherever there is sincere faith, God is always near. Sincere faith in another religion or belief is for someone like me a matter of delayed, not denied, salvation. I hope that gives you a richer understanding of how some Christians can reconcile the age of pagan practices versus Christian faith with belief in a single supreme God.”
submitted by Competitive_Bid7071 to DebateReligion [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 19:20 Eden199607 24 F being verbally abused by 27 M partner

This is going to be one, lengthy one and I apologise for the long read.
I (24 F) matched with my boyfriend (27 M) on Tinder in August. We were using the Tinder passport and happened to swipe right on one another. Also note that we live on opposite ends of the world so we have not met yet, due to Covid-19 restrictions, but intend to do so once the pandemic wears off.
He was an alumnus of an Ivy League college while I was a fresh graduate from one of the top universities in Australia. We seemed to have similar interests and hence, hit it off pretty soon. We switched from Tinder to Facebook Messenger in no time and soon, progressed onto Whatsapp for daily calls and text messages. Also do note that we weren't following one another on social media (except communicating on Facebook) and he wasn't a friend on there. Something seemed amiss, but I let it be.
Over the weeks, I made it clear that I was not in favour of a three-way sexual intercourse (which he expressed his desire for). He told me he respected my decision and would never bring that up when we meet in person someday, but he continued to tell me how he longed to carry out a roleplay in the bedroom where I pretend to be a helpless mother attempting to make ends meet for the sake of her infant while he rapes me as the baby is watching. I was disturbed. I told him such a scenario would never turn me on in any circumstances, but he brushed off my wish to not bring that up again.
We dived right into a relationship when he said he felt threatened to discover another man hitting on me (which I did not entertain at all costs). When I shared about my relationship with a close friend who had explored online dating and been through a rough time before, she told me to be wary of him as he never once brought up the topic on following one another on social media. If he had nothing to hide, why wasn't he popping the question? I was traumatised when my friend was madly in love with a man whom she had met on a dating application, only to figure out that everything he had mentioned about himself was a white lie. The pictures he used on the application were those of himself, but everything else (his name, occupation, where he studied) was a white lie. That was in a weak attempt to conceal the fact that he had a girlfriend and was itching to have a side hoe without the other party knowing.
I will admit, I brought up the topic with my boyfriend in an unacceptable manner. Instead of gently asking him, I assumed he had something to hide and said, "are you hiding something from me? If you are and that is why you haven't been following me on social media, I do not want to pursue this anymore". That got to his head. He called and started yelling at me and said this was over because I had assumed. I asked him for forgiveness and was begging him to not come to a decision as such and he yelled on the phone saying, "BEG ME MORE. ONLY THEN I WOULD ACCEPT YOU."
I did. I gave in and begged him. I sounded pathetic. But I had already liked him and wanted to do anything to have him in my life. Soon, his anger simmered down and things got back to normal. We never broke up, by the way. He allowed me to finally follow him on social media and I realised he had nothing to hide. He wasn't a catfish at all. Everything (including Google search results) aligned with what he had told me within the short time we had known one another.
But this week (and I mean on a Monday afternoon), he told me how accusing him of hiding something from him affected him and that he did not want to pursue this further. I asked him why didn't he talk to me about it for the six days that followed after the argument and he replied saying he did not want to upset me.
This is where it gets crazy. He told me that if I ever upset him again, he would come up with sadistic punishments. He bluntly said he would invite another woman to suck him off and I had to watch it if I ever got on his nerves again. I was terrified. I told him never to think of it or bring that up again.
He also started demanding that if I was serious about him, I would tattoo his name on my body and wouldn't hesitate moving half-way across the world for him (bear in mind that I am a fresh graduate) and that I do not have any plans on being a financial burden on my parents as they had forked out a lum sum of money for my education in Australia (international student fees are insane). Also pin-pointed saying I had internalised racism because I never brought up the topic on not being a practicing Christian (which we both are), "fearing that he would judge me". His words, not mine.
He hung up shortly after, but I have been feeling really down after this terrible conversation I have had with him. I know our relationship is barely a month, but the daily accusations (of being an internalised racist and that I am someone who is out to hurt him) has honestly gotten unbearable. I have been emotionally abused and I am not even going to deny that.
How did you part ways amicably with someone who has emotionally abused you? I am reconsidering being part of this relationship because honestly, this has drained the life out of me. I also do not think I can put up with his sick fetishes of being a helpless mother in distress while he bangs me in front of a non-existential child. I am sick to my stomach whenever I think of everything he said he desired to do with me.
Note that I have always given him a free pass whenever he yells at me (it wasn't just that one time after sending that awful message from my end), he has done that quite a number of times and I let that slide by as he has ADHD. But right now, I do not know if I can withstand his accusations of me being a racist or the fact that I am out to hurt him.
Will be happy to share more details, but right now I am truly just lost and any advice would be appreciated. Thank you.
submitted by Eden199607 to abusiverelationships [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 14:52 BlancheFromage Article: "Japan's Religion of 'Gain'"

This is a September 22, 1966, article from a Jehovah's Witnesses magazine ("Awake!"), and it's been preserved by faithleaks.org.
Despite it coming out of a notorious Christian cult, the content is surprisingly accurate.
THE REASON FOR THIS MAGAZINE
News sources that are able to keep you awake to the vital issues of our times must be unfettered by censorship and selfish interests. "Awake!" has no fetters. It recognizes facts, faces facts, is free to publish facts. It is not bound by political ties; it is unhampered by traditional creeds. This magazine keeps itself free, that it may speak freely to you. But it does not abuse its freedom. It maintains integrity to truth.
The viewpoint of "Awake!" is not narrow, but is international. "Awakel" has its own correspondents in scores of nations. Its articles are read in many lands, in many languages, by millions of persons.
In every issue "Awake!" presents vital topics on which you should be informed. It features penetrating articles on social conditions and offers sound counsel for meeting the problems of everyday life. Current news from every continent passes in quick review. Attention is focused on activities in the fields of government and commerce about which you should know. Straightforward discussions of religious issues alert you to matters of vital concern. Customs and people in many lands, the marvels of creation, practical sciences and points of human interest are all embraced in its coverage. "Awakel" provides wholesome, instructive reading for every member of the family.
"Awakel" pledges itself to righteous principles, to exposing hidden foes and subtle dangers, to championing freedom for all, to comforting mourners and strengthening those, disheartened by the failures of a delinquent world, reflecting sure hope for the establishment of God's righteous new order in this generation.
[Establishment FAIL]
Get acquainted with "Awake!" Keep awake by reading "Awake!"
JAPAN'S RELIGION OF "GAIN"
By "Awake!" correspondent in Japan
REELING under the blows of atomic bombs and of military defeat, Japan emerged from the second world war with new and urgent problems. The feudal basis of family life had been weakened, old communal standards had been shaken and old-time religion had suffered a big setback. There was a moral and spiritual vacuum that needed to be filled. What would fill this vacuum?
In any other country, communism might have capitalized on the situation. However, communism failed to take hold among the nationally-minded Japanese. Rather, the post-World War II era has witnessed the growth of a multitude of "new religions," often called "crisis religions," designed to meet the people's immediate wants. Almost one hundred "new religions" have mushroomed during the past twenty years. Their number includes Shinto sects that had been forced previously to conform to state Shinto, as well as offshoots from established Buddhist sects. For the most part, these "crisis religions" have offered their adherents things that they lost during World War II, such as health, material prosperity, peace of mind and community fellowship.
Riding on this tide of religious revival, one sect has raced ahead of all the others.
[This is not an accurate statement; in 1954, New Religions Tenri-kyō, Reiyū-kai, Seichō-no-Ie, and Risshō Kōsei-kai already had 1,912,208, 2,284,172, 1,461,604, and 1,041,124, respectively, way more than Toda's Soka Gakkai had in 1954 (341,146). Source]
It is the so-called Soka Gakkai ("Value Creation Academic Society"), a development of the 700-year-old Nichiren Shoshu sect. Its postwar organizer, Josei Toda, explained that the Nichiren Shoshu sect had declined prior to the war, and, therefore, "as the Great Saint Nichiren predicted, Japan has experienced a crisis which resulted in national ruin." And what was his solution?
The militant Soka Gakkai, which has proclaimed itself the savior of Japan, and ultimately of the entire world.
Growth of Soka Gakkai
The Nichiren Shoshu sect was founded in the thirteenth century by Nikko, a disciple of the fanatical Buddhist monk Nichiren Daishonin. Its headquarters, which the sect expects to become the center of religion world wide, is a temple called Daisekiji, at the foot of Mount Fuji. Here are preserved the Dai·Gohonzon, said to be the original scroll containing Nichiren's sacred formula, and also Nichiren's miraculous tooth, the onikuge. It is reported that Nichiren pulled a loose tooth from his mouth and handed it to Nikko, to be used as a testimony in propagating their religion among all mankind.
[Too many explanations for why something happened = big red flag.]
It is also claimed that a piece of flesh still adheres to the tooth, and that this continues to grow. The sect is to reach its zenith when the flesh covers the tooth in its entirety. The tooth is closely guarded, and no scientific authority is permitted to examine it.
Soka Gakkai was founded in 1937 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, an ex-schoolteacher and student of pedagogy, who converted to Nichiren Shoshu. Nichiren's religious fanaticism and Makiguchi's theory of "value creation" have been combined into one of the most amazing religious crusades in history. Soka Gakkai itself describes the Theory of Value, as taught by Makiguchi and his successor, Josei Toda, in these words:
The goal of human life is happiness, ,the ideal state for each individual. ... A happy life is the condition in which whatever is regarded as having value is realized. . .. Truth and value are two very different concepts. . . . Historically, philosophers have regarded the principal elements of the ideal life to be truth, goodness and beauty. This is incorrect .... The Principle of Value makes the basic ingredients of happiness: gain, goodness and beauty .... The criterion of value is gain or loss, not good or evil. - Quoted from Contemporary Religions in Japan, Vol. I, No.3, September 1960.
This sounds contradictory to Nichiren's own oft-repeated emphasis on the "Lotus of Truth." Gain is substituted for truth.
[This sounds like it could easily foster an 'end justifies the means' mentality.]
Devotion to the sacred scroll at Daisekiji and the repetitious chanting of the Lotus Sutra are the "gain-producing values." Financial gain or faith healing often provide the incentive for joining Soka Gakkai. The standard for judging everything is: Do we gain or lose by it?
The fanatical Nichiren denounced all other schools of Buddhism as heresy, and established his own new formula for the salvation of all mankind: Namu Myoho- Renge-Kyo ("Adoration Be to the Lotus of Wonderful Truth!") Followers of Nichiren, and now of Soka Gakkai, are said to reach Buddhahood through the daily frenzied chanting of this formula, the Daimoku. Their mentality in this connection may be gauged by the following English-language article appearing in their Seikyo Shimbun ("Holy Teaching Newspaper"), No. 592, reporting a speech by the present leader, Daisaku Ikeda, on April 24, 1961:
We pray to the Dai·Gohonzon (''Holy Scroll") every morning and evening. Look intently at the Gohonzon, and you will find some Chinese characters on the upper left which read: ''Those who worship the Gohonzon or those who practice the sutra of the True Buddha can accumulate even greater merits than the ten virtues of Buddha." On the opposite side it is clearly written that "A person who viciously maligns the Gohonzon will surely have his head broken in seven." A person who has pure faith in the Gohonzon will be bestowed with even greater benefit than the ten good fortunes of Buddha. On the contrary, those who slander either the Gohonzon or true believers (Gakkai members) must undergo such dreadful punishment of having their heads broken in seven, i.e., falling into the pit of hell.
One may well ask, How could a religion with these medieval concepts make such strides, as Soka Gakkai has done, in a modern society? For the most part, Soka Gakkai adherents are to be found among the poorer, uneducated classes. The movement has made its appeal, emotionally, to the desire for material betterment. It has used a devastating instrument known as shakubuku - which has been variously interpreted as meaning, "destroy and conquer," "bend and flatten," or "crush and throw down." This refers to the practice of Soka Gakkai members in ganging up on households or individuals afflicted with sickness or economic problems, blaming it on their religion or lack of religion. and relentlessly 'brainwashing' them until conversion is achieved. The new convert must then destroy the "abominations" or appendages of his former religion.
[This is the process of hobobarai we have discussed.]
He is provided with his scroll, rosary and badge, and is threatened with terrible reprisals should he ever think of leaving the organization. Shakubuku was organized by president Josei Toda following World War II. It draws strength from Soka Gakkai's militaristic structure, which has been compared to that of the Hitler Youth. Its Youth Division today numbers one and a half million young people, including a fife-and-drum band of the Young Women's Division described as "second to none in its skilled and beautiful performance."
[Boy, NOT in MY experience!!]
Soka Gakkai describes its Youth Division as "the driving force of the organization."
[This YOUFF! focus is clearly original to the Soka Gakkai.]
Soon after instituting shakubuku, Toda proclaimed: "The great march for forced conversions, begun on May 3, 1951, has brought a great many comrades into our camp." By 1953, he claimed a membership of 53,000 households. By 1959, the number was 1,096,920 households, and by 1964, the claim was for 4,600,965 households.
Into the Political Arena
Soka Gakkai's main goals are political. This is in line with Nichiren's ancient claim: "I will be the pillar of Japan; I will be the eyes of Japan; I will be the great vessel of Japan." As explained in Seikyo Shimbun in April 1955, the sect's purpose is that "when, as the result of our great 'shakubuku,' our country is rid of all evil religions, the Diet ought to decide to create a national center of worship. For that end, it is necessary to send our members to the national legislature so that we could command a majority. Of course, it might be 10 or 20 years before this may be realized. Until then, we must train our members in the local legislatures."
After making sensational gains in local municipal and Upper House elections, Soka Gakkai set up the Komeito ("Clean Government Party") on November 17, 1964. The party immediately called for the abolition of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty and for Japan to recognize communist China. However, Komeito acts independently of both "right" and "left."
According to Soka Gakkai leaders, the party has been organized as a practical means of carrying out obutsu myogo, a merger of government and religion. In elections for the Upper House of the Diet in 1965, Komeito increased its representation to twenty in this body of 250 members. They are planning next to put thirty-two members into the Lower House.
Other political parties are voicing concern at this religious invasion of the political arena.
Since 1960, Soka Gakkai has carried its campaign into Southeast Asia, and even into the United States. It has been outlawed in South Korea because of its political activity there.
Ultimate Goals
Seven centuries ago, Nichiren himself announced his sect's objective of building a national temple at the foot of Mount Fuji. Soka Gakkai has espoused this goal, declaring its purpose to establish a kokuritsu kaidan ("national instruction hall") for "basic religious training in defense of the nation." In July 1961 a four-day drive among members netted over three billion yen ($9,000,000), and this was used in building the projected temple's Grand Reception Hall, which was completed April 1, 1964. According to Soka Gakkai's Seikyo Shimbun, of October 19, 1965, another four-day drive recently raised 35 billion yen (nearly $100 million), which is to be used for building the shōhōndo, or main temple hall. This is now under construction.

Soka Gakkai used to make bold the claim that it would convert, first the entire nation of Japan, and then the world.

However, in July 1965 the sect's 34-year-old president, Daisaku Ikeda, appeared to make the goal more realistic, when he drew an illustration from the Indian state of Shravasti, mentioned in the "Lotus of Wonderful Truth." According to the Lotus Sutra, one-third of the people of Shravasti saw Buddha and believed him, one third saw him but did not believe his message, and one-third neither saw nor heard him. The implication is that the conversion of Japan will be accomplished when shakubuku has claimed one-third of the people for Soka Gakkai, another third is sympathetic, and the remaining third is either indifferent or hostile. A recent Soka Gakkai tabulation asserted that membership was already 5,400,000 out of 25,000,000 households in Japan.
[The actual population of Japan in 1965 was 98.88 million individuals; the population is not measured in "households" outside of religions' claims - and these claims are never audited or verified by any objective investigation.]
What is the ultimate goal of the movement? To quote Soka Gakkai itself: "The purpose of Sokagakkai is not world conquest, but absolute world happiness and peace. President Ikeda has always stated that 'the purpose of Sokagakkai is to save the masses from misfortune and misery and to establish happiness and peace throughout the world.'" - Sokagakkai and Nichiren Shoshu, by the Seikyo Press, October 25, 1964.
It is with this goal that Soka Gakkai carries forward its militant campaign of shakubuku. Imbued with the idea that people on this earth receive everything from the idol Buddha, they are aiming at centering all worship in Japan around the huge temple that is to be completed at Mount Fuji in 1970. A Gakkai spokesman told the Sunday Mainichi (November 14, 1965), that it is "not a 'coincidence" that the temple is scheduled to be completed around 1970.
[It was actually completed in 1972.]
This seems to be a target date for a campaign to "help save" the soul of everyone in the world. It is also in 1970 that the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty is scheduled to come up for revision-an explosive issue from which radical groups such as Soka Gakkai doubtless hope to make gain.
Fear, Mistrust and Apprehension
Observers have noted a rather unusual quiet in the Soka Gakkai camp in recent months.
[I suspect this was because Ikeda was TERRIFIED that the Japanese authorities would conduct an audit on the sources of the outlandish sum collected in the Sho-Hondo Construction Campaign, which had just wrapped. So until the coast was clear, so to speak, Ikeda was keeping everything quiet so as to not provoke any societal backlash in the form of intensified governmental scrutiny.]
Whether they have mellowed their aggressiveness, or whether this is a calm before further storms, remains to be seen. There are even reports that many have broken away from the movement in disillusion. The director of Shinshuren ("Alliance of New Religions"), which has mobilized its followers against Soka Gakkai, claims that at least a million members of Soka Gakkai want to leave the organization but are fearful of reprisals.
[It was in 1965 that Ikeda decided to change the Soka Gakkai's structure from vertical (new recruits joining the same groups as the members who'd shakubukued them) to horizontal (new recruits assigned groups based on geographical location) to facilitate political power via voting aggregates. The next year, 1966, Ikeda announced that half a million families had left the Soka Gakkai, and the year after that, 1967, Ikeda announced that the Soka Gakkai's growth phase had ended. Yay leadership!]
Soka Gakkai is mistrusted, and even feared, by the majority of the Japanese people. Its claims for the superiority of "gain" over "truth," coupled with fanatical shakubuku and equally questionable high-pressure political campaigning, have not endeared it to rational persons. The generation that remembers the crimes committed by the Nazis in Germany and by Shinto national ism in Japan is entitled to regard the politico-religious Soka Gakkai with apprehension.
Where may people turn in their search for true religion? Not to a theory of "gain," or to a lifeless idol of Buddha, but to the living God, Jehovah, whose Son, Christ Jesus, said: "There is more happiness in giving than there is in receiving." (Acts 20:35) Ah, there is the true secret of happiness! It is to be found in the practical application of the law of love, even as Jesus explained: "These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you and your joy may be made full. This is my commandment, that you love one another just as I have loved you."-John 15: 11,12.
Of course, the Christian publication has to shoehorn its own "shakubuku" message in there somewhere! Why not the end?? Might as well make sure to leave everyone with a bad taste in their mouths, eh?
submitted by BlancheFromage to sgiwhistleblowers [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 23:29 ar_david_hh Sep/13/2020 news: \\ post-July Battles in Tavush: border farming & irrigation expands \\ re: new law about draft evaders \\ car exports: Armenian drivers in Russia \\ more athletes to receive pensions \\ COVID \\ female boss \\ trolls in Baku \\ Social Progress score \\ Խաչվերաց \\ videos \\ sports

Land battle... then apricot war... now water struggle

There is a village in Tavush Province called Dovegh not far from where the July Battles took place. It will be better irrigated at the expense of Azeri bordering villages.
 
QP MP Sipan Pashinyan (Nikol's cousin): Only 5ha out of 45ha lands near villagers' houses are being irrigated with an automatic system. The other 37ha lands are being farmed only at 10% capacity due to lack of water.
We've launched a water pump with the help of HayEconom Bank. It'll feed off of a small river that flows through the village into Azerbaijan. We will prioritize our people over Azerbaijan.
Video: https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/195626

Armenian villagers farm not far away from new Anvakh outpost

Tavush's Anvakh border outpost was liberated by the Armenian army during July Battles.
Choratan villagers will soon have irrigation water and expand farming on the lands near the border, hundreds of meters away from frontlines.
Shots could be heard coming from the borders while the farmers collected the yield. They showed a bullet earlier extracted from the land.
https://youtu.be/tGKzAwhWt2M

LHK responds to draft law aimed at allowing army draft evaders to return

Diasporan Armenians who didn't serve in the Armenian army used to be able to pay a $7,500 penalty and return, without having to draft or go to prison. The ruling QP party allowed that law to expire.
Now they drafted a new bill that is yet to be discussed. It would raise the penalty sum and toughen the punishment for not serving in the army.
 
Opposition LHK comments the proposed law: // the bill will make the army dodging a heavy crime instead of medium. The prison sentence doubles. Since it'll be a heavy crime, the statute of limitations doubles from 5 to 10 years, meaning people will have to wait longer to arrive [without paying].
Under-27 men will avoid punishment if they return and serve. But now, they could possibly serve 18 months longer because the law will add an extra month of service for every evaded season (9 years of evading, multiplied by failure to appear 2 times a year, equals 18)
Over-27 men will avoid punishment if they pay a penalty equalling the salary and bonus of a 2-year contractor. It will be around $10,000.
 
When the former govt tried to raise the penalty from $3,700 to $18,700, we opposed it and settled with a $7,400 penalty.
Last year we urged Pashinyan's govt to keep the $7,400 law, but they were against the idea of taking money and dropping the charges in general.
Then we urged a total amnesty of all army evaders, but they rejected it, too.
 
Those who couldn't pay the old $7,400 penalty cannot pay the newly proposed $10,000 penalty, either. //
https://www.reddit.com/armenia/comments/iqy6b2/sep112020_details_emerge_about_massalcohol/?

Armenian drivers in Russia could have one less headache

EAEU trade bloc will work with member states to resolve problems that affected Armenian and Kazakh drivers beginning in 2019.
 
Armenian govt will expand the sharing of vehicle registration/ clearance/fee information with EAEU. Armenian drivers, who took their cars to Russia for long-term use without proper registration in Russia, will receive information from Russian authorities on how to properly register and pay a fee.
 
Context: customs fees for clearing a vehicle is much lower in Armenia than in Russia, which affects the final vehicle price. As a result, 400,000 drivers (mostly non-Armenian) imported a car to Armenia then moved it to Russia for permanent personal use. Russia later introduced new laws that caused problems.
More: https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/195629

Massive fires in Krasnodar, Russia

The roofs of several attached apartment complex buildings caught on fire.
https://youtu.be/0ykAQwv1Gz0
https://youtu.be/kxnOcet50p8
https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/195638

Education Ministry will reward more champion athletes

Athletes who won medals in international competitions recently began earning monthly pensions.
Now the Education Ministry has a plan to expand this list by including Armenian citizen champions who live abroad, and those who won medals during USSR.
That's about 20 more athletes who will receive $210-$420/mo.
https://factor.am/283023.html

COVID stats

+187 infected. +5 deaths. 238312 tested. 3005 active.
Record +158 infections in Georgia.
https://factor.am/283062.html
https://factor.am/283122.html

bruh

A concert in Dilijan attracted a big crowd. Although most people had masks, the place was packed.
https://youtu.be/UuKUTuYPJU4?t=26

More emergency flights

... from Gyurmi to Moscow and Yerevan to St. Petersburg. 327 people were able to return to Russia.
https://factor.am/283093.html

Trolling back

Armenian trolls published someone else's video recorded in Baku and did a voice-over to make it seem they were in Baku and taunting the incompetent Azeri security services.
A similar trolling was done by Azeris in the past.
https://youtu.be/fRb0nJOT_BA

INTERPOL's Armenian bureau

... will be led by Lieutenant Colonel Narine Hakobyan, the first woman in this position.
https://factor.am/283101.html

Best Social Progress in the region

Washington-based "Social Progress Imperative" has a 2020 index among 163 countries.
2018: Armenia 61st
2019: Armenia 53rd
2020: Armenia 50th, Georgia 56, Russia 69, Azerbaijan 104, Norway 1st, South Sudan last.
https://www.civilnet.am/news/2020/09/11/Սոցիալական-առաջընթացի-ցուցիչ-–-2020-Հայաստանը-առաջատարն-է-տարածաշրջանում/394624

Constitutional Referendum

... is scheduled for 2021. The group of NGOs, opposition, and govt officials held another meeting to discuss the proposed changes.
https://factor.am/283041.html

The church celebrates Խաչվերաց տոն

Խաչվերաց (raising the cross) is the last one of five celebrations, and the most important one, dedicated to Holy Cross.
It dates back to the origins of Christianity when apostle Jacob, who served as the first bishop of Jerusalem, raised the Cross above residents to read a prayer.
It's celebrated on a Sunday between September 11-17.
Details: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027506.html
https://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Տաղավար_տոներ#Խաչվերաց

"Kef Chi Lini", by French Ladaniva group

https://youtu.be/GXWXhXoFBWY?t=8

how do you do, fellow kids?

https://youtu.be/ifuygphgJ74

հեծո քշելու

High-Tech Minister Arshakyan took the kids for a bike ride.
https://youtu.be/3akt4Qcc5iA?t=4

hmmmmm 🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔

Henrikh Mkhitaryan gets his salary and transfer finalized with Milan Roma (duh), and only then starts to magically score goals. COINCIDENCE? /s
Midfielder Heno scored goals two matches in a row.
https://factor.am/283116.html

Grandmaster Levon Aronyan

... is playing in the 2020 CHAMPIONS SHOWDOWN: CHESS 9LC competition.
He tied with Fabiano Caruana, then played two more ties with others.
Then three victories in a row placed him at the top of the list.
Then a defeat to Lagrave placed him third.
Other players are Garry Kasparov, Magnus Carsalesman, Maxime Lagrave, etc. The prize fund is $150,000. The finale in on September 19th.
https://factor.am/283065.html
https://factor.am/283119.html
https://sport.news.am/arm/news/114704/
 
You've read 1042 words.

Disclaimer & Terminology

1) The accused are innocent until proven guilty in the court of law, even if they sound guilty.
2) Currency in Armenian ֏ unless specified otherwise.
3) NSS/SIS/SOC = law enforcement agencies. QP = Civil Contract Party. LHK = Bright Armenia Party. BHK = Prosperous Armenia Party. HHK = Republican Party. ARF = Armenian Revolutionary Federation Party
4) ARCHIVE of older posts by Idontknowmuch: PART 1 ; PART 2 ; PART 3 ; PART 4 ; PART 5.
5) ARCHIVE of older posts by Armeniapedia.
submitted by ar_david_hh to armenia [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 01:02 throwawayokay336 Can an Agnostic be with a Christian?

TL;DR: I'm Agnostic and he's Christian. He says we can't be together because of this. A part of me has always wanted to believe but I have so much doubt.
I (f21) met (m21) in class a couple years ago. I didn't reach out to him until this Feb. We became good friends and are fairly open with each other. I always had strong feelings for him and recently I've seen him start to form some for me. We get along well but our religious beliefs don't align. I'm agnostic whereas he's a Christian, a very strict one to say the least. He says he can't date a non-Christian.
I have always had a battle within myself when it comes to religion. I grew up Catholic, but never went to church or had any structure placed on me. I was just told that God existed. I was always uneasy about faith, almost embarassed to pray or go inside a church. By 12 I started to lose my faith completely and I've been a skeptic ever since. I feel like I will become more lenient to believe as I get older, but I still have so much doubt at this age. If I were to marry a Christian, I wouldn't mind my kids being raised religious and I'm not judgemental towards believers. The only issue I've had with Christians is them forcing their religion onto me or treating others poorly (i.e. gay people).
I told him all of this, but it's still a no-go. He needs to know I'll share his faith. We'll be at the same uni for a few years, so I know that things can change; though I don't really expect them to.
I'm asking for a neutral opinion on the situation. It feels like I'm falling in love with this man and that is why I'm so stuck on this. He's triggering this internal battle I've always had. I don't want him to be the reason I convert, that's toxic. So, how should I go about this? Even from a pov where he isn't in the equation, what do I do about my uneasiness towards religion? And I'm concerned this will be an issue with most people I date.
submitted by throwawayokay336 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 21:27 komorikomori Some more Baha'i population statistics

Inspired by this old post but with more countries and not exclusively reliant on census numbers. I have statistics for more countries, but I only included ones where the ARDA/WCE numbers are notably higher. These numbers are of course tentative.
Country Realistic estimate World Christian Encyclopedia[1]
India 4,572[2] 1,897,651
United States 77,290[3] 512,864
Uganda 29,601[4] 95,098
Canada 18,945[5] 46,826
Australia 13,989[6] 19,365
Mauritius 639[7] 23,742
United Kingdom 5,021[8] 47,554
Germany 5,000-6,000[9] 12,356
Zambia 3,891[10] 241,112
Costa Rica 4,000[11] 13,457
El Salvador 1,500[12] 27,345
Egypt 1,000-2,000[13] 6,946
Sweden >1,000[14] 6,814
Israel 650[15] 11,705
Morocco 350-400[16] 32,598
Afghanistan >400[17] 16,541
Bahamas 65[18] 1,375
Barbados 178[19] 3,337
Belize 202[20] 7,742
Botswana 2,074[21] 16,464
Finland 568[22] 1,674
Ghana >3,000[23] 14,106
Guyana 500[24] 11,787
Norway 1,015[25] 2,737

Sources

  1. Most Baha'i Nations (2010)
  2. 2011 Indian Census. See C-01 Appendix : Details of Religious Community Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table C-1- 2011 (India & States/UTs).
  3. US NSA, 2020 Ridvan Report. See total # of Baha'is with good addresses. See also the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey which recorded 84,000 Baha'is in the United States.
  4. 2014 Ugandan census.
  5. 2011 Canadian census.
  6. 2016 Australian census.
  7. 2011 Mauritian census.
  8. "Census 2011 data on religion reveals Jedi Knights are in decline," in The Guardian, 2012.
  9. "Verschiedene Gemeinschaften / neuere religiöse Bewegungen (Weltanschauungen / alternative Religiosität & Spiritualität)," Religious Studies Media and Information Service. (German).
  10. UN Data (2010 Zambian census). Filter to Zambia. Note that this census has received serious criticism.
  11. NSA of Costa Rica (Spanish).
  12. NSA of El Salvador (Spanish).
  13. 2019 Report on International Religious Freedom: Egypt, U.S. Department of State. Statistic comes from "Baha'i representatives."
  14. NSA of Sweden (2012). See also NSA of Sweden (2016) (Swedish).
  15. https://www.ganbahai.org.il/en/learn-more/bahai-community/worldwide-community (No permanent residents).
  16. 2019 Report on International Religious Freedom: Morocco, U.S. Department of State. Statistic from "leaders of the Baha'i community."
  17. 2007 Report on International Religious Freedom: Afghanistan, U.S. Department of State.
  18. UN Data (2010). Filter to the Bahamas.
  19. 2010 Barbados census.
  20. 2010 Belize census.
  21. UN Data (2011). Filter to Botswana.
  22. UN Data (2010). Filter to Finland.
  23. Baha'i Community in Ghana to Honour Their Founder, News Ghana, 2017.
  24. 2002 Guyana census.
  25. 2007 Norwegian census.
submitted by komorikomori to exbahai [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 21:24 Apples_Are_Red263 A Brief Defence of Traditional Authorship

Addressing Common Counterarguments

There are a number of arguments against traditional authorship of the gospels. Internal evidence against traditional authorship include official anonymity, their fluent Greek, the title convention (The Gospel According to ‘X’), times where the author refers to themselves in the third person, Markan priority challenges Matthean authorship, the claim that Matthew, a publican, would not be familiar with the jewish scriptures and perceived discrepancies between Paul’s own testimony and his depiction in Acts.
The citation of official anonymity needs no further consideration, as it is nothing more than an argument from silence. If the author’s did identify themselves, this would indeed provide evidence in favour of traditional authorship, but they’re failure to do so is not evidence against it. As to their fluent use of Greek, Matthew was originally composed in Aramaic, John Mark was an interpreter, and Greek a major trade language. Especially given his clunky, direct Greek translation containing many Aramaicisms, it isn’t improbable that he composed this gospel. Luke was a gentile physician, and so would have likely spoken Greek as well. The only case where this might apply is John, which we will come back to. The title convention could easily be explained by a theological commitment to there being only one gospel, and this gospel was told according to four separate individuals, namely those whom the gospel bears the name of. It is interesting that many ancient authors referred to themselves in the third person. One such example is Caesar in the Gallic wars, “When it was reported to Caesar that they were attempting to make their route through our Province he hastens to set out from the city, and, by as great marches as he can, proceeds to Further Gaul, and arrives at Geneva.” (Gallic Wars, 1.7), but this is far from the only example. Other include Gallic War 2.1; 3.28; 4.13; 5.9; 6.4; 7.11 and Civil War 1.1, so this claim is entirely baseless. Matthean priority neatly addresses the next concern. A publican would have been Familiar with the jewish law, so the next claim is baseless too, and no such tension exists between how Paul is depicted in Acts and how he depicts himself.
With regards to external evidence, the main argument against the church fathers is not that they were uneducated or lying, but that they were attesting to authorship far too late to be of any use, as legendary development had already set in. It is noteworthy that the fathers - especially Papias - record traditions that are earlier than themselves. We have no trace of any competing tradition, unanimity amongst highly educated scholars of the time and attribution to figures who were not considered authoritative in the slightest, strongly counting against the fathers making it up for reasons of authority.
The question then shifts to the reliability of the oral tradition itself. Late tradition, (and it is asserted the authorship traditions fall into this category) is likely to be legendary and therefore false, while early tradition is likely to be true. Irenaeus heard Polycarp who heard John, and is unlikely to make up authorship for purposes of authority. Thus, it appears he provides us with a direct line of oral tradition leading back to the apostles themselves. Clement of Alexandria and Origen likewise show a similar progression, with Origen being a student of Clement and furthering this tradition. Therefore, it is not implausible that Irenaeus is furthering the tradition of Polycarp who is himself furthering a tradition dating to the apostle’s own lifetime. This would qualify as an early tradition, as, at most, only fifty years has passed between the writing of the gospels and their traditional attribution. We must also consider the content of this tradition. If it is fantastic, then it more likely to represent falsehood, but if it is mundane, it more likely to represent truth. Here, a fantastic tradition would have the gospels written by prominent figures, but as we’ve already established this was surely not the case, and thus where to we find a tradition that is rather mundane, and entirely consistent with the decisive internal evidence.
It is true certain works such as the didache seem to quote Matthew without explicitly stating it, this could be plausibly attributed to the fact that Matthew spent a period of time as the only Gospel in publication. Similarly, it is at times argued that the gospels were published formerly anonymously because Polycarp himself and Ignatius quote regularly from the gospels without citing them. This is another argument from silence. Many Christians even today quote memorized passages and teachings from the gospels without providing a direct citation, and so their failure to do so is not an argument against traditional authorship. Likewise, Justin Martyr quotes from the gospels without naming their authors, but this is a red herring, as we already established that this tradition is likely to be earlier than the early second century anyways. Likewise, Justin Martyr could also have been simply quoting memorized verses without taking care to explicitly cite them. In summary, it appears we are dealing with an earlier oral tradition that arose at the latest around the late first or early second century and most likely much earlier. If the gospels were originally formally anonymous, it makes very little sense for the church fathers to attribute them to the figures they did when these figures were not very prominent in the early church. For example, Mark was an interpreter of Peter, and so it makes very little sense for the fathers to attribute it to Mark when they could attribute it just as easily to Peter himself. Likewise, Matthew was a very unknown disciple mentioned only a few times, and Luke was a disciple of Paul, who wasn’t an eyewitness himself. If these attributions were part of a legendary development which formed in order to cement the gospels in apostolic authority, it makes very little sense that these would the names that would rise to the top of the list in terms of attributions.

Matthean Authorship of the Gospel of Matthew

External Evidence
Papius writes, “Matthew compiled the sayings [logia of Christ] in the Hebrew language and each interpreted them as best he could.” (Papius, 60-130 AD)
While Papius is not regarded as a reliable source, his attribution to Matthean authorship is widely corroborated in Later sources, such as Irenaeus who writes, “Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome.” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). Irenaeus is also likely knew Polycarp, who knew John, and so he it is plausible he was passing on earlier oral tradition attributing authorship to Matthew. Likewise, Clement of Alexandria writes, “Of all those who had been with the Lord, only Matthew and John left us their recollections, and tradition says they took to writing perforce. Matthew had first preached to the Hebrews, and when he was on the point of going to others he transmitted in writing in his native language the Gospel according to himself, and thus supplied by writing the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Thus, we have attestation by Papias whose account is corroborated by Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus, both of whom are educated men. It is also noteworthy that Irenaeus knew Polycarp, who was a disciple of John, and this increases plausibility that he was preserving an oral tradition earlier than his own attestation.
Internal Evidence
Matthew identifies himself at the tax booth (Matt. 9:9) under his apostolic name Matthew as opposed to his other name, Levi, which is what Luke and Mark have him named as (Mk. 2:14, Lk: 5:27). This is functionally equivalent to Paul’s use of the name Paul in referring to himself in his letters, but Acts referring to him under the name Saul. Matthew contains numerous financial references, including a number of financial transactions (17:24-27; 18:23-35, 20:1-16, 26:15, 27:3-10, 28:11-15), the Lord’s Prayer saying ‘Debts’ rather than ‘sins’. In Matthew 22:19, he uses the more precise term νόμισμα (state coin), as opposed to Mark and Luke which use only the term δηνάριον (dēnarion). In Mark 2:15 and Luke 5:29 we are told that Matthew made a great feast at his house, but in the equivalent of this parable in Matthew, it says τη οικια (the house) (Matthew 9:10), which is more consistent with a third person version of ‘my house’. Matthew alone records the paying of the temple tax (Matthew 17:24-27) where we find out that a stater is worth four drachma. Matthew’s gospel is also the only gospel to record the parable of the vineyard workers (Matt. 20:1-16), which would strike a cord with a tax collector, but may have been more forgettable to the other apostles. Moreover, a denarius a day was considered a fair wage (Annals 1.17), and so the wage found in the parable is considered a fair one. It is the sole gospel to record the exact payment to Judas (Matt. 26:15) and finally the saying of the Pharisees swearing by the gold in the temple (Matt: 23:16-17). All of these financial references are consistent with the view that a publican composed this gospel as opposed to just anyone, and it is consistent with the view that the apostles Matthew wrote it.

Markan Authorship of the Gospel of Mark

External Evidence
Papias writes, “This also the presbyter said: Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately, though not in order, whatsoever he remembered of the things said or done by Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor followed him, but afterward, as I said, he followed Peter, who adapted his teaching to the needs of his hearers, but with no intention of giving a connected account of the Lord's discourses, so that Mark committed no error while he thus wrote some things as he remembered them. For he was careful of one thing, not to omit any of the things which he had heard, and not to state any of them falsely.” (Papias, 60-130 AD).
This is further corroborated by Irenaeus, who writes “Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter.”(Irenaeus, 180 AD). And Tertullian writing in Carthage northern Africa affirms “that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter's whose interpreter Mark was.” (Tertullian, AD 160-220). Clement of Alexandria agrees, “The Gospel according to Mark had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Origin writes “The second is by Mark, who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, who in his Catholic epistle acknowledges him as a son, saying, 'The church that is at Babylon elected together with you, salutes you, and so does Marcus, my son.'” (Origin, 185-254). Likewise with Matthew, with Mark it appears the church fathers are preserving an earlier tradition from the early second century at the latest, and it is implausible that this oral tradition would have attributed the gospels to the apostles it did as they were minor apostles compared to pillars of the church such as Peter or James, and even less plausible that the church fathers would have made them up entirely.
Internal Evidence
Philemon 1:24 places Mark in tome where Peter resides as bishop. The church fathers are unanimous that Mark was Peter’s interpreter as we have already established, and his clunky Greek with several Aramaicisms, albeit less than Matthew’s gospel, reflect Mark’s direct Greek translation. As we previously established, many of the apostles such as Paul had both an apostolic name and a common name. For Peter, his common name was Simon. More often than not, Peter is referred to by this common name throughout the other Synoptics, but in Mark he is often referred to as Peter. Simon is mentioned first among the apostles in Mark’s gospel, and his brother Andrew is called ‘the brother of Simon’, which seems odd, but it perfectly explained by Peter saying ‘my brother’ and Mark recording ‘the brother of Simon’. Mark 16:7 states ‘the disciples and Peter’, which provides more emphasis on Peter than the other apostles. Bauckham argues that Mark is attempting to hint at his source via an inclusio by having Peter as the first and last named disciple in his gospel. Matthew and Luke do not use the word ‘orgistheis’ meaning ‘being angry’, which does not suit a man with a skin disease coming to be healed. The original aramaic word would have read ‘regaz’, which often meant be angry, but could mean a wider array of things than just this.

Lukan Authorship of Luke/Acts

External Evidence
Irenaeus writes, “Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him.” and also regarding Acts he writes, “But that this Luke was inseparable from Paul, and his fellow-labourer in the Gospel, he himself clearly evinces, not as a matter of boasting, but as bound to do so by the truth itself… As Luke was present at all these occurrences, he carefully noted them down in writing…” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). Tertullian writes, “… the evangelical Testament has apostles for its authors, to whom was assigned by the Lord Himself this office of publishing the gospel... therefore, John and Matthew first instil faith into us; while of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards… Now, of the authors whom we possess, Marcion seems to have singled out Luke for his mutilating process.” (Tertullian, AD 220). Finally, Origen affirms, “And the third by Luke, the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts… Luke, the author of the Gospel and the Acts, wrote it.” (Origen, AD 185-254).
Internal Evidence
Luke is traditionally considered to have been authored by Luke the physician. Luke appears to display medical interest, such as identifying Peter’s moth in law with a high fever (μέγας πυρετός) as opposed to just a fever (πυρέσσω). Luke also appears to specify an advanced stage of leprosy by describing the healed leper as full of leprosy (πληρης λεπρας) rather than just merely a leper. Furthermore, Luke displays use of medical terminology (Lk. 4,38; 5,12; 8,44; Acts 5,5 10; 9,40) and describes illnesses and cures with acute medical terminology that the average person would not be familiar with (Lk. 4,35; 3,11; Acts 3,7; 9,18). In Luke 14:1-4, Luke employs the precise medical term ‘hudropikos’, which is not a term the average person would know, and is recorded in contemporary medical sources, namely the work of renowned Greek physician Hippocrates. To cite another specific example in Acts, Luke accurately describes the man’s exact medical condition, ‘puretois kai dusenterio sunechomenon’ or literally ‘suffering from fever and dysentery’.

Johannine Authorship of the Gospel of John

External Evidence
Irenaeus writes, “… John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia… those who were conversant in Asia with John, the disciple of the Lord, [affirming] that John conveyed to them that information. And he remained among them up to the times of Trajan… Then, again, the Church in Ephesus, founded by Paul, and having John remaining among them permanently until the times of Trajan, is a true witness of the tradition of the apostles.” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). It is noteworthy than Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, would have considered him as the link between Christ and himself. The significance, of course, being that Polycarp was a disciple of John. Tertullian Likewise affirms, “The same authority of the apostolic churches will afford evidence to the other Gospels also, which we possess equally through their means, and according to their usage — I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew…” (Tertullian, 220 AD). Clement of Alexandria agrees, writing “John, perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Origen writes succinctly, “Last of all that by John.” (Origen, 185-254 AD).
Internal Evidence
John 21:20-24 has the author identity himself as one of the followers of Jesus, and more specifically as ‘the disciple whom Jesus Loved’. This is odd given that nowhere in the gospel of John does is John the son of Zebedee named explicitly, and this is even when less known disciples such as Philip are named, and inspite of the fact the Synoptics frequently name John as well. It seems most plausible that ‘the beloved disciple’ was John’s title he used to describe himself, rather than that of an anonymous author. In addition, the identification of John the Baptist as simply ‘John’ seems to imply that the readers of the gospel of John would identify authorship of the fourth gospel with another name (ie the beloved disciple). Moreover, the gospel contains many small, incidental details that are characteristic of eyewitness testimony, such as The number of water jars at the wedding in Cana (John 2:6), how long the man at the Pool of Bethesda had been crippled (John 5:5), the name of the servant whose ear was chopped off by Peter (John 18:10) and the number of fish the disciples caught at Galilee (John 21:11). The gospel contains many pieces of internal evidence which suggest a jewish, not gentile origin, such as the author identifying the purpose of the water jars at the wedding in Cana (John 2:6), He notes that Jesus was in Jerusalem during the Passover (John 2:23), he mentions that Jesus fed the 5,000 near the Passover (John 6:4), He talks about the Festival of Tabernacles (John 7:2, 37), He specifies that it was the Festival of Dedication, where another writer might simply say “it was winter” (John 10:22) and finally John records that Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified on the day of Preparation for the Passover (John 19:14, 31). The gospel also uses many aramaic words such as Rabbi, Rabboni, Messias, and Kēphas, and additionally the themes and imagery of light versus darkness and the children of God versus the children of Satan have also been noted in the Dead Sea Scrolls, suggesting a jewish context rather than a Greek one. It is argued John wouldn’t have know greek, but this is not much of an argument since the use of scribes is recorded elsewhere in the New Testament, such as Romans 16:22, “I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, greet you in the Lord.” (Romans 16:22) and 1 Peter 5:12, “By Silvanus, our faithful brother as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand.” (I Peter 5:12). This, therefore, seems to cement the plausibility of the use of scribes, and so an argument from language and Greek prose alone does not undermine Johannine authorship. Moreover, the aramaic words, jewish themes and knowledge of Jewish practice suggests a jewish origin.
submitted by Apples_Are_Red263 to ConservativeBible [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 20:16 Apples_Are_Red263 A Brief Defence of Traditional Authorship

Addressing Common Counterarguments

There are a number of arguments against traditional authorship of the gospels. Internal evidence against traditional authorship include official anonymity, their fluent Greek, the title convention (The Gospel According to ‘X’), times where the author refers to themselves in the third person, Markan priority challenges Matthean authorship, the claim that Matthew, a publican, would not be familiar with the jewish scriptures and perceived discrepancies between Paul’s own testimony and his depiction in Acts.
The citation of official anonymity needs no further consideration, as it is nothing more than an argument from silence. If the author’s did identify themselves, this would indeed provide evidence in favour of traditional authorship, but they’re failure to do so is not evidence against it. As to their fluent use of Greek, Matthew was originally composed in Aramaic, John Mark was an interpreter, and Greek a major trade language. Especially given his clunky, direct Greek translation containing many Aramaicisms, it isn’t improbable that he composed this gospel. Luke was a gentile physician, and so would have likely spoken Greek as well. The only case where this might apply is John, which we will come back to. The title convention could easily be explained by a theological commitment to there being only one gospel, and this gospel was told according to four separate individuals, namely those whom the gospel bears the name of. It is interesting that many ancient authors referred to themselves in the third person. One such example is Caesar in the Gallic wars, “When it was reported to Caesar that they were attempting to make their route through our Province he hastens to set out from the city, and, by as great marches as he can, proceeds to Further Gaul, and arrives at Geneva.” (Gallic Wars, 1.7), but this is far from the only example. Other include Gallic War 2.1; 3.28; 4.13; 5.9; 6.4; 7.11 and Civil War 1.1, so this claim is entirely baseless. Matthean priority neatly addresses the next concern. A publican would have been Familiar with the jewish law, so the next claim is baseless too, and no such tension exists between how Paul is depicted in Acts and how he depicts himself.
With regards to external evidence, the main argument against the church fathers is not that they were uneducated or lying, but that they were attesting to authorship far too late to be of any use, as legendary development had already set in. It is noteworthy that the fathers - especially Papias - record traditions that are earlier than themselves. We have no trace of any competing tradition, unanimity amongst highly educated scholars of the time and attribution to figures who were not considered authoritative in the slightest, strongly counting against the fathers making it up for reasons of authority.
The question then shifts to the reliability of the oral tradition itself. Late tradition, (and it is asserted the authorship traditions fall into this category) is likely to be legendary and therefore false, while early tradition is likely to be true. Irenaeus heard Polycarp who heard John, and is unlikely to make up authorship for purposes of authority. Thus, it appears he provides us with a direct line of oral tradition leading back to the apostles themselves. Clement of Alexandria and Origen likewise show a similar progression, with Origen being a student of Clement and furthering this tradition. Therefore, it is not implausible that Irenaeus is furthering the tradition of Polycarp who is himself furthering a tradition dating to the apostle’s own lifetime. This would qualify as an early tradition, as, at most, only fifty years has passed between the writing of the gospels and their traditional attribution. We must also consider the content of this tradition. If it is fantastic, then it more likely to represent falsehood, but if it is mundane, it more likely to represent truth. Here, a fantastic tradition would have the gospels written by prominent figures, but as we’ve already established this was surely not the case, and thus where to we find a tradition that is rather mundane, and entirely consistent with the decisive internal evidence.
It is true certain works such as the didache seem to quote Matthew without explicitly stating it, this could be plausibly attributed to the fact that Matthew spent a period of time as the only Gospel in publication. Similarly, it is at times argued that the gospels were published formerly anonymously because Polycarp himself and Ignatius quote regularly from the gospels without citing them. This is another argument from silence. Many Christians even today quote memorized passages and teachings from the gospels without providing a direct citation, and so their failure to do so is not an argument against traditional authorship. Likewise, Justin Martyr quotes from the gospels without naming their authors, but this is a red herring, as we already established that this tradition is likely to be earlier than the early second century anyways. Likewise, Justin Martyr could also have been simply quoting memorized verses without taking care to explicitly cite them. In summary, it appears we are dealing with an earlier oral tradition that arose at the latest around the late first or early second century and most likely much earlier. If the gospels were originally formally anonymous, it makes very little sense for the church fathers to attribute them to the figures they did when these figures were not very prominent in the early church. For example, Mark was an interpreter of Peter, and so it makes very little sense for the fathers to attribute it to Mark when they could attribute it just as easily to Peter himself. Likewise, Matthew was a very unknown disciple mentioned only a few times, and Luke was a disciple of Paul, who wasn’t an eyewitness himself. If these attributions were part of a legendary development which formed in order to cement the gospels in apostolic authority, it makes very little sense that these would the names that would rise to the top of the list in terms of attributions.

Matthean Authorship of the Gospel of Matthew

External Evidence
Papius writes, “Matthew compiled the sayings [logia of Christ] in the Hebrew language and each interpreted them as best he could.” (Papius, 60-130 AD)
While Papius is not regarded as a reliable source, his attribution to Matthean authorship is widely corroborated in Later sources, such as Irenaeus who writes, “Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome.” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). Irenaeus is also likely knew Polycarp, who knew John, and so he it is plausible he was passing on earlier oral tradition attributing authorship to Matthew. Likewise, Clement of Alexandria writes, “Of all those who had been with the Lord, only Matthew and John left us their recollections, and tradition says they took to writing perforce. Matthew had first preached to the Hebrews, and when he was on the point of going to others he transmitted in writing in his native language the Gospel according to himself, and thus supplied by writing the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Thus, we have attestation by Papias whose account is corroborated by Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus, both of whom are educated men. It is also noteworthy that Irenaeus knew Polycarp, who was a disciple of John, and this increases plausibility that he was preserving an oral tradition earlier than his own attestation.
Internal Evidence
Matthew identifies himself at the tax booth (Matt. 9:9) under his apostolic name Matthew as opposed to his other name, Levi, which is what Luke and Mark have him named as (Mk. 2:14, Lk: 5:27). This is functionally equivalent to Paul’s use of the name Paul in referring to himself in his letters, but Acts referring to him under the name Saul. Matthew contains numerous financial references, including a number of financial transactions (17:24-27; 18:23-35, 20:1-16, 26:15, 27:3-10, 28:11-15), the Lord’s Prayer saying ‘Debts’ rather than ‘sins’. In Matthew 22:19, he uses the more precise term νόμισμα (state coin), as opposed to Mark and Luke which use only the term δηνάριον (dēnarion). In Mark 2:15 and Luke 5:29 we are told that Matthew made a great feast at his house, but in the equivalent of this parable in Matthew, it says τη οικια (the house) (Matthew 9:10), which is more consistent with a third person version of ‘my house’. Matthew alone records the paying of the temple tax (Matthew 17:24-27) where we find out that a stater is worth four drachma. Matthew’s gospel is also the only gospel to record the parable of the vineyard workers (Matt. 20:1-16), which would strike a cord with a tax collector, but may have been more forgettable to the other apostles. Moreover, a denarius a day was considered a fair wage (Annals 1.17), and so the wage found in the parable is considered a fair one. It is the sole gospel to record the exact payment to Judas (Matt. 26:15) and finally the saying of the Pharisees swearing by the gold in the temple (Matt: 23:16-17). All of these financial references are consistent with the view that a publican composed this gospel as opposed to just anyone, and it is consistent with the view that the apostles Matthew wrote it.

Markan Authorship of the Gospel of Mark

External Evidence
Papias writes, “This also the presbyter said: Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately, though not in order, whatsoever he remembered of the things said or done by Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor followed him, but afterward, as I said, he followed Peter, who adapted his teaching to the needs of his hearers, but with no intention of giving a connected account of the Lord's discourses, so that Mark committed no error while he thus wrote some things as he remembered them. For he was careful of one thing, not to omit any of the things which he had heard, and not to state any of them falsely.” (Papias, 60-130 AD).
This is further corroborated by Irenaeus, who writes “Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter.”(Irenaeus, 180 AD). And Tertullian writing in Carthage northern Africa affirms “that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter's whose interpreter Mark was.” (Tertullian, AD 160-220). Clement of Alexandria agrees, “The Gospel according to Mark had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Origin writes “The second is by Mark, who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, who in his Catholic epistle acknowledges him as a son, saying, 'The church that is at Babylon elected together with you, salutes you, and so does Marcus, my son.'” (Origin, 185-254). Likewise with Matthew, with Mark it appears the church fathers are preserving an earlier tradition from the early second century at the latest, and it is implausible that this oral tradition would have attributed the gospels to the apostles it did as they were minor apostles compared to pillars of the church such as Peter or James, and even less plausible that the church fathers would have made them up entirely.
Internal Evidence
Philemon 1:24 places Mark in tome where Peter resides as bishop. The church fathers are unanimous that Mark was Peter’s interpreter as we have already established, and his clunky Greek with several Aramaicisms, albeit less than Matthew’s gospel, reflect Mark’s direct Greek translation. As we previously established, many of the apostles such as Paul had both an apostolic name and a common name. For Peter, his common name was Simon. More often than not, Peter is referred to by this common name throughout the other Synoptics, but in Mark he is often referred to as Peter. Simon is mentioned first among the apostles in Mark’s gospel, and his brother Andrew is called ‘the brother of Simon’, which seems odd, but it perfectly explained by Peter saying ‘my brother’ and Mark recording ‘the brother of Simon’. Mark 16:7 states ‘the disciples and Peter’, which provides more emphasis on Peter than the other apostles. Bauckham argues that Mark is attempting to hint at his source via an inclusio by having Peter as the first and last named disciple in his gospel. Matthew and Luke do not use the word ‘orgistheis’ meaning ‘being angry’, which does not suit a man with a skin disease coming to be healed. The original aramaic word would have read ‘regaz’, which often meant be angry, but could mean a wider array of things than just this.

Lukan Authorship of Luke/Acts

External Evidence
Irenaeus writes, “Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him.” and also regarding Acts he writes, “But that this Luke was inseparable from Paul, and his fellow-labourer in the Gospel, he himself clearly evinces, not as a matter of boasting, but as bound to do so by the truth itself… As Luke was present at all these occurrences, he carefully noted them down in writing…” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). Tertullian writes, “… the evangelical Testament has apostles for its authors, to whom was assigned by the Lord Himself this office of publishing the gospel... therefore, John and Matthew first instil faith into us; while of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards… Now, of the authors whom we possess, Marcion seems to have singled out Luke for his mutilating process.” (Tertullian, AD 220). Finally, Origen affirms, “And the third by Luke, the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts… Luke, the author of the Gospel and the Acts, wrote it.” (Origen, AD 185-254).
Internal Evidence
Luke is traditionally considered to have been authored by Luke the physician. Luke appears to display medical interest, such as identifying Peter’s moth in law with a high fever (μέγας πυρετός) as opposed to just a fever (πυρέσσω). Luke also appears to specify an advanced stage of leprosy by describing the healed leper as full of leprosy (πληρης λεπρας) rather than just merely a leper. Furthermore, Luke displays use of medical terminology (Lk. 4,38; 5,12; 8,44; Acts 5,5 10; 9,40) and describes illnesses and cures with acute medical terminology that the average person would not be familiar with (Lk. 4,35; 3,11; Acts 3,7; 9,18). In Luke 14:1-4, Luke employs the precise medical term ‘hudropikos’, which is not a term the average person would know, and is recorded in contemporary medical sources, namely the work of renowned Greek physician Hippocrates. To cite another specific example in Acts, Luke accurately describes the man’s exact medical condition, ‘puretois kai dusenterio sunechomenon’ or literally ‘suffering from fever and dysentery’.

Johannine Authorship of the Gospel of John

External Evidence
Irenaeus writes, “… John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia… those who were conversant in Asia with John, the disciple of the Lord, [affirming] that John conveyed to them that information. And he remained among them up to the times of Trajan… Then, again, the Church in Ephesus, founded by Paul, and having John remaining among them permanently until the times of Trajan, is a true witness of the tradition of the apostles.” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). It is noteworthy than Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, would have considered him as the link between Christ and himself. The significance, of course, being that Polycarp was a disciple of John. Tertullian Likewise affirms, “The same authority of the apostolic churches will afford evidence to the other Gospels also, which we possess equally through their means, and according to their usage — I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew…” (Tertullian, 220 AD). Clement of Alexandria agrees, writing “John, perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Origen writes succinctly, “Last of all that by John.” (Origen, 185-254 AD).
Internal Evidence
John 21:20-24 has the author identity himself as one of the followers of Jesus, and more specifically as ‘the disciple whom Jesus Loved’. This is odd given that nowhere in the gospel of John does is John the son of Zebedee named explicitly, and this is even when less known disciples such as Philip are named, and inspite of the fact the Synoptics frequently name John as well. It seems most plausible that ‘the beloved disciple’ was John’s title he used to describe himself, rather than that of an anonymous author. In addition, the identification of John the Baptist as simply ‘John’ seems to imply that the readers of the gospel of John would identify authorship of the fourth gospel with another name (ie the beloved disciple). Moreover, the gospel contains many small, incidental details that are characteristic of eyewitness testimony, such as The number of water jars at the wedding in Cana (John 2:6), how long the man at the Pool of Bethesda had been crippled (John 5:5), the name of the servant whose ear was chopped off by Peter (John 18:10) and the number of fish the disciples caught at Galilee (John 21:11). The gospel contains many pieces of internal evidence which suggest a jewish, not gentile origin, such as the author identifying the purpose of the water jars at the wedding in Cana (John 2:6), He notes that Jesus was in Jerusalem during the Passover (John 2:23), he mentions that Jesus fed the 5,000 near the Passover (John 6:4), He talks about the Festival of Tabernacles (John 7:2, 37), He specifies that it was the Festival of Dedication, where another writer might simply say “it was winter” (John 10:22) and finally John records that Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified on the day of Preparation for the Passover (John 19:14, 31). The gospel also uses many aramaic words such as Rabbi, Rabboni, Messias, and Kēphas, and additionally the themes and imagery of light versus darkness and the children of God versus the children of Satan have also been noted in the Dead Sea Scrolls, suggesting a jewish context rather than a Greek one. It is argued John wouldn’t have know greek, but this is not much of an argument since the use of scribes is recorded elsewhere in the New Testament, such as Romans 16:22, “I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, greet you in the Lord.” (Romans 16:22) and 1 Peter 5:12, “By Silvanus, our faithful brother as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand.” (I Peter 5:12). This, therefore, seems to cement the plausibility of the use of scribes, and so an argument from language and Greek prose alone does not undermine Johannine authorship. Moreover, the aramaic words, jewish themes and knowledge of Jewish practice suggests a jewish origin.
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2020.09.12 20:11 ThinkingRationality3 A Brief Defence of Traditional Authorship

Addressing Common Counterarguments

There are a number of arguments against traditional authorship of the gospels. Internal evidence against traditional authorship include official anonymity, their fluent Greek, the title convention (The Gospel According to ‘X’), times where the author refers to themselves in the third person, Markan priority challenges Matthean authorship, the claim that Matthew, a publican, would not be familiar with the jewish scriptures and perceived discrepancies between Paul’s own testimony and his depiction in Acts.
The citation of official anonymity needs no further consideration, as it is nothing more than an argument from silence. If the author’s did identify themselves, this would indeed provide evidence in favour of traditional authorship, but they’re failure to do so is not evidence against it. As to their fluent use of Greek, Matthew was originally composed in Aramaic, John Mark was an interpreter, and Greek a major trade language. Especially given his clunky, direct Greek translation containing many Aramaicisms, it isn’t improbable that he composed this gospel. Luke was a gentile physician, and so would have likely spoken Greek as well. The only case where this might apply is John, which we will come back to. The title convention could easily be explained by a theological commitment to there being only one gospel, and this gospel was told according to four separate individuals, namely those whom the gospel bears the name of. It is interesting that many ancient authors referred to themselves in the third person. One such example is Caesar in the Gallic wars, “When it was reported to Caesar that they were attempting to make their route through our Province he hastens to set out from the city, and, by as great marches as he can, proceeds to Further Gaul, and arrives at Geneva.” (Gallic Wars, 1.7), but this is far from the only example. Other include Gallic War 2.1; 3.28; 4.13; 5.9; 6.4; 7.11 and Civil War 1.1, so this claim is entirely baseless. Matthean priority neatly addresses the next concern. A publican would have been Familiar with the jewish law, so the next claim is baseless too, and no such tension exists between how Paul is depicted in Acts and how he depicts himself.
With regards to external evidence, the main argument against the church fathers is not that they were uneducated or lying, but that they were attesting to authorship far too late to be of any use, as legendary development had already set in. It is noteworthy that the fathers - especially Papias - record traditions that are earlier than themselves. We have no trace of any competing tradition, unanimity amongst highly educated scholars of the time and attribution to figures who were not considered authoritative in the slightest, strongly counting against the fathers making it up for reasons of authority.
The question then shifts to the reliability of the oral tradition itself. Late tradition, (and it is asserted the authorship traditions fall into this category) is likely to be legendary and therefore false, while early tradition is likely to be true. Irenaeus heard Polycarp who heard John, and is unlikely to make up authorship for purposes of authority. Thus, it appears he provides us with a direct line of oral tradition leading back to the apostles themselves. Clement of Alexandria and Origen likewise show a similar progression, with Origen being a student of Clement and furthering this tradition. Therefore, it is not implausible that Irenaeus is furthering the tradition of Polycarp who is himself furthering a tradition dating to the apostle’s own lifetime. This would qualify as an early tradition, as, at most, only fifty years has passed between the writing of the gospels and their traditional attribution. We must also consider the content of this tradition. If it is fantastic, then it more likely to represent falsehood, but if it is mundane, it more likely to represent truth. Here, a fantastic tradition would have the gospels written by prominent figures, but as we’ve already established this was surely not the case, and thus where to we find a tradition that is rather mundane, and entirely consistent with the decisive internal evidence.
It is true certain works such as the didache seem to quote Matthew without explicitly stating it, this could be plausibly attributed to the fact that Matthew spent a period of time as the only Gospel in publication. Similarly, it is at times argued that the gospels were published formerly anonymously because Polycarp himself and Ignatius quote regularly from the gospels without citing them. This is another argument from silence. Many Christians even today quote memorized passages and teachings from the gospels without providing a direct citation, and so their failure to do so is not an argument against traditional authorship. Likewise, Justin Martyr quotes from the gospels without naming their authors, but this is a red herring, as we already established that this tradition is likely to be earlier than the early second century anyways. Likewise, Justin Martyr could also have been simply quoting memorized verses without taking care to explicitly cite them. In summary, it appears we are dealing with an earlier oral tradition that arose at the latest around the late first or early second century and most likely much earlier. If the gospels were originally formally anonymous, it makes very little sense for the church fathers to attribute them to the figures they did when these figures were not very prominent in the early church. For example, Mark was an interpreter of Peter, and so it makes very little sense for the fathers to attribute it to Mark when they could attribute it just as easily to Peter himself. Likewise, Matthew was a very unknown disciple mentioned only a few times, and Luke was a disciple of Paul, who wasn’t an eyewitness himself. If these attributions were part of a legendary development which formed in order to cement the gospels in apostolic authority, it makes very little sense that these would the names that would rise to the top of the list in terms of attributions.

Matthean Authorship of the Gospel of Matthew

External Evidence
Papius writes, “Matthew compiled the sayings [logia of Christ] in the Hebrew language and each interpreted them as best he could.” (Papius, 60-130 AD)
While Papius is not regarded as a reliable source, his attribution to Matthean authorship is widely corroborated in Later sources, such as Irenaeus who writes, “Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome.” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). Irenaeus is also likely knew Polycarp, who knew John, and so he it is plausible he was passing on earlier oral tradition attributing authorship to Matthew. Likewise, Clement of Alexandria writes, “Of all those who had been with the Lord, only Matthew and John left us their recollections, and tradition says they took to writing perforce. Matthew had first preached to the Hebrews, and when he was on the point of going to others he transmitted in writing in his native language the Gospel according to himself, and thus supplied by writing the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Thus, we have attestation by Papias whose account is corroborated by Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus, both of whom are educated men. It is also noteworthy that Irenaeus knew Polycarp, who was a disciple of John, and this increases plausibility that he was preserving an oral tradition earlier than his own attestation.
Internal Evidence
Matthew identifies himself at the tax booth (Matt. 9:9) under his apostolic name Matthew as opposed to his other name, Levi, which is what Luke and Mark have him named as (Mk. 2:14, Lk: 5:27). This is functionally equivalent to Paul’s use of the name Paul in referring to himself in his letters, but Acts referring to him under the name Saul. Matthew contains numerous financial references, including a number of financial transactions (17:24-27; 18:23-35, 20:1-16, 26:15, 27:3-10, 28:11-15), the Lord’s Prayer saying ‘Debts’ rather than ‘sins’. In Matthew 22:19, he uses the more precise term νόμισμα (state coin), as opposed to Mark and Luke which use only the term δηνάριον (dēnarion). In Mark 2:15 and Luke 5:29 we are told that Matthew made a great feast at his house, but in the equivalent of this parable in Matthew, it says τη οικια (the house) (Matthew 9:10), which is more consistent with a third person version of ‘my house’. Matthew alone records the paying of the temple tax (Matthew 17:24-27) where we find out that a stater is worth four drachma. Matthew’s gospel is also the only gospel to record the parable of the vineyard workers (Matt. 20:1-16), which would strike a cord with a tax collector, but may have been more forgettable to the other apostles. Moreover, a denarius a day was considered a fair wage (Annals 1.17), and so the wage found in the parable is considered a fair one. It is the sole gospel to record the exact payment to Judas (Matt. 26:15) and finally the saying of the Pharisees swearing by the gold in the temple (Matt: 23:16-17). All of these financial references are consistent with the view that a publican composed this gospel as opposed to just anyone, and it is consistent with the view that the apostles Matthew wrote it.

Markan Authorship of the Gospel of Mark

External Evidence
Papias writes, “This also the presbyter said: Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately, though not in order, whatsoever he remembered of the things said or done by Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor followed him, but afterward, as I said, he followed Peter, who adapted his teaching to the needs of his hearers, but with no intention of giving a connected account of the Lord's discourses, so that Mark committed no error while he thus wrote some things as he remembered them. For he was careful of one thing, not to omit any of the things which he had heard, and not to state any of them falsely.” (Papias, 60-130 AD).
This is further corroborated by Irenaeus, who writes “Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter.”(Irenaeus, 180 AD). And Tertullian writing in Carthage northern Africa affirms “that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter's whose interpreter Mark was.” (Tertullian, AD 160-220). Clement of Alexandria agrees, “The Gospel according to Mark had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Origin writes “The second is by Mark, who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, who in his Catholic epistle acknowledges him as a son, saying, 'The church that is at Babylon elected together with you, salutes you, and so does Marcus, my son.'” (Origin, 185-254). Likewise with Matthew, with Mark it appears the church fathers are preserving an earlier tradition from the early second century at the latest, and it is implausible that this oral tradition would have attributed the gospels to the apostles it did as they were minor apostles compared to pillars of the church such as Peter or James, and even less plausible that the church fathers would have made them up entirely.
Internal Evidence
Philemon 1:24 places Mark in tome where Peter resides as bishop. The church fathers are unanimous that Mark was Peter’s interpreter as we have already established, and his clunky Greek with several Aramaicisms, albeit less than Matthew’s gospel, reflect Mark’s direct Greek translation. As we previously established, many of the apostles such as Paul had both an apostolic name and a common name. For Peter, his common name was Simon. More often than not, Peter is referred to by this common name throughout the other Synoptics, but in Mark he is often referred to as Peter. Simon is mentioned first among the apostles in Mark’s gospel, and his brother Andrew is called ‘the brother of Simon’, which seems odd, but it perfectly explained by Peter saying ‘my brother’ and Mark recording ‘the brother of Simon’. Mark 16:7 states ‘the disciples and Peter’, which provides more emphasis on Peter than the other apostles. Bauckham argues that Mark is attempting to hint at his source via an inclusio by having Peter as the first and last named disciple in his gospel. Matthew and Luke do not use the word ‘orgistheis’ meaning ‘being angry’, which does not suit a man with a skin disease coming to be healed. The original aramaic word would have read ‘regaz’, which often meant be angry, but could mean a wider array of things than just this.

Lukan Authorship of Luke/Acts

External Evidence
Irenaeus writes, “Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him.” and also regarding Acts he writes, “But that this Luke was inseparable from Paul, and his fellow-labourer in the Gospel, he himself clearly evinces, not as a matter of boasting, but as bound to do so by the truth itself… As Luke was present at all these occurrences, he carefully noted them down in writing…” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). Tertullian writes, “… the evangelical Testament has apostles for its authors, to whom was assigned by the Lord Himself this office of publishing the gospel... therefore, John and Matthew first instil faith into us; while of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards… Now, of the authors whom we possess, Marcion seems to have singled out Luke for his mutilating process.” (Tertullian, AD 220). Finally, Origen affirms, “And the third by Luke, the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts… Luke, the author of the Gospel and the Acts, wrote it.” (Origen, AD 185-254).
Internal Evidence
Luke is traditionally considered to have been authored by Luke the physician. Luke appears to display medical interest, such as identifying Peter’s moth in law with a high fever (μέγας πυρετός) as opposed to just a fever (πυρέσσω). Luke also appears to specify an advanced stage of leprosy by describing the healed leper as full of leprosy (πληρης λεπρας) rather than just merely a leper. Furthermore, Luke displays use of medical terminology (Lk. 4,38; 5,12; 8,44; Acts 5,5 10; 9,40) and describes illnesses and cures with acute medical terminology that the average person would not be familiar with (Lk. 4,35; 3,11; Acts 3,7; 9,18). In Luke 14:1-4, Luke employs the precise medical term ‘hudropikos’, which is not a term the average person would know, and is recorded in contemporary medical sources, namely the work of renowned Greek physician Hippocrates. To cite another specific example in Acts, Luke accurately describes the man’s exact medical condition, ‘puretois kai dusenterio sunechomenon’ or literally ‘suffering from fever and dysentery’.

Johannine Authorship of the Gospel of John

External Evidence
Irenaeus writes, “… John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia… those who were conversant in Asia with John, the disciple of the Lord, [affirming] that John conveyed to them that information. And he remained among them up to the times of Trajan… Then, again, the Church in Ephesus, founded by Paul, and having John remaining among them permanently until the times of Trajan, is a true witness of the tradition of the apostles.” (Irenaeus, 180 AD). It is noteworthy than Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, would have considered him as the link between Christ and himself. The significance, of course, being that Polycarp was a disciple of John. Tertullian Likewise affirms, “The same authority of the apostolic churches will afford evidence to the other Gospels also, which we possess equally through their means, and according to their usage — I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew…” (Tertullian, 220 AD). Clement of Alexandria agrees, writing “John, perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel.” (Clement of Alexandria, 150-215 AD). Origen writes succinctly, “Last of all that by John.” (Origen, 185-254 AD).
Internal Evidence
John 21:20-24 has the author identity himself as one of the followers of Jesus, and more specifically as ‘the disciple whom Jesus Loved’. This is odd given that nowhere in the gospel of John does is John the son of Zebedee named explicitly, and this is even when less known disciples such as Philip are named, and inspite of the fact the Synoptics frequently name John as well. It seems most plausible that ‘the beloved disciple’ was John’s title he used to describe himself, rather than that of an anonymous author. In addition, the identification of John the Baptist as simply ‘John’ seems to imply that the readers of the gospel of John would identify authorship of the fourth gospel with another name (ie the beloved disciple). Moreover, the gospel contains many small, incidental details that are characteristic of eyewitness testimony, such as The number of water jars at the wedding in Cana (John 2:6), how long the man at the Pool of Bethesda had been crippled (John 5:5), the name of the servant whose ear was chopped off by Peter (John 18:10) and the number of fish the disciples caught at Galilee (John 21:11). The gospel contains many pieces of internal evidence which suggest a jewish, not gentile origin, such as the author identifying the purpose of the water jars at the wedding in Cana (John 2:6), He notes that Jesus was in Jerusalem during the Passover (John 2:23), he mentions that Jesus fed the 5,000 near the Passover (John 6:4), He talks about the Festival of Tabernacles (John 7:2, 37), He specifies that it was the Festival of Dedication, where another writer might simply say “it was winter” (John 10:22) and finally John records that Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified on the day of Preparation for the Passover (John 19:14, 31). The gospel also uses many aramaic words such as Rabbi, Rabboni, Messias, and Kēphas, and additionally the themes and imagery of light versus darkness and the children of God versus the children of Satan have also been noted in the Dead Sea Scrolls, suggesting a jewish context rather than a Greek one. It is argued John wouldn’t have know greek, but this is not much of an argument since the use of scribes is recorded elsewhere in the New Testament, such as Romans 16:22, “I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, greet you in the Lord.” (Romans 16:22) and 1 Peter 5:12, “By Silvanus, our faithful brother as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand.” (I Peter 5:12). This, therefore, seems to cement the plausibility of the use of scribes, and so an argument from language and Greek prose alone does not undermine Johannine authorship. Moreover, the aramaic words, jewish themes and knowledge of Jewish practice suggests a jewish origin.
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2020.09.12 19:22 whoopsydaisy123456 My(f) crush(f) has internalized homophobia and is forcing herself to date a dude

My best friend and I both came out as bi a while back and I recently confessed to her a few days ago. I kinda thought she would say yes considering she once told me she would marry me. However she said that she wouldn't date any girls. Turns out she talked to a few of her Christian friends last month (she's also Christian) and they warned her about her sexuality so now she's traumatised and has internalized homophobia. I tried talking to her about it but it only ended with "it might get better in the future but not now". She also told me she's talking to a guy right now to "see how it goes" but I'm pretty sure she's forcing herself to like him because although she's bi, she always says she hates all men and wishes she were lesbian (I think she's only doing this because her parents are religious and homophobic). We're still on goood terms but I like her a lot and I really want her more than anything else, any advice on how I can improve the situation?
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2020.09.12 07:53 kindamehbutok My heart was broken 3 times, but it worked out for the good.

Before this story starts I want to acknowledge a few things
1: My grammar isnt the best so please try to read past it. I am so sorry for it but Im not the best at grammar.
2: I explain this story as if Im talking to you in person. So If something seems off with what Im saying thats why. So I may use words like: Kinda, Anyway, So basically, etc.. Im sorry again for my poor grammar but Im used to texting not writing books.
3: READ THE WHOLE STORY. Please read this especially if you are in a low point in life. I dont tell this story because I want you to feel sorry for me. I want this story to help you. Yeah Its a mild low point in my life and I understand that some people go through alot worse but please look past that. I have a specific reason to tell this story.
4: This is kinda weird for me to get this out there because Ive never talked about this to anyone who didnt help me through it personally. So this is going to be strange for me but I hope it helps you. Please read all the way through and if you want to say something about it please do! I would love your opinions on this matter. Thank you!
I will also have each section of the story as a few word phrase to make the next part a little easier to understand. like the one below.
Who was I?
I was a 16 year old, all my life single, hyperactive, kid attending any sort of public school for the first time in my life. Yes.. I was homeschooled my entire life. That meant that going to school for me was a huge step out of my comfort zone. I was a little shy but adapted to my surroundings decently fast. I had a small group of friends, but I never had that group of friends that I knew I could trust and talk about anything with.
First Day of School
I arrived at the school for the first time for the "prep day." Basically they did a crash course of how everything worked throughout the year and what to expect. I was going to a virtual academy while taking 2 classes at the main Highschool. I arrived at the school I noticed only 3 people I recognized. One of which was a girl I knew, but not too well. (Which I will call Ella for Identity reasons) Basically the only time we really talked is when I helped my mom take her 8th grade pictures. She was 15 I was turning 17 that year. Anyway I sat down next to her and we talked a little throughout the meeting. Little did I know that was the start of something way bigger then I could've Imagined.
Fast forward a few weeks and Ive meet a few new people but out of everyone Ella and I were closest. I was just getting into social media and one lunch period everyone was trying to convince me to get Snapchat. Ive tried snapchat before and I thought at the time It was kind of pointless, but they convinced me and helped me set up mt account.
Later that day I got a snap from Ella, and all it was were the words: "Night Streaks" now I had gotten a ton of these "streaks" for people but I finally decided to ask Ella what it meant. She explained it and we got talking. Soon enough we were almost talking everyday. We would see eachother in the mornings, eat lunch, walk to the other school on the opposite side of the campus, go our separate ways, then most likely end up chatting on snapchat until its time to go to bed, then do it all agian. Needless to say she quickly became my best friend.
My First Crush
I had never had a crush on anyone, and as a 17 year old who had never experienced "feelings for someone" it was weird when I finally met a girl that I had feelings for. It took me a while to realize that I liked Ella, but as soon as I started to accept it. People noticed..
I cant specifically remember the ammount of people who asked me but It was blatantly obvious that I liked her or at the very least felt comfortable around her. I wasnt the only one however.. One day I was walking to the school with one of her friends that over heard them talking.
"So do you like him?" Her friend asked quietly.
"Well.." Ella started to talk but quickly stopped.
Her friend gasped! "So you do like him!?"
"Yeah Ok! Maybe I do like him," Ella said. "My mom doesnt want me to date until college so dont get your hopes up."
"Well shoot!" I thought. "First crush and not even a month goes by and my heart gets broken!"
I thought about it heavely and I was upset. Not at her or the guy but upset at myself. But I managed. A few weeks go by and Im in the virtual academy building when.. the website goes down. Thats right. The main website for the classes completely un-accessible. The teachers give us the permission walk around and chat. I go over to my group of friends, Ella being one of them, and start talking. We all see Ella's "boyfriend" walking up to the building and she starts freaking out wanting to hide. Im confused but dont say anything. Turns out they had an argument and he was being a jerk to her. (I'll be honest I never really liked the dude anyway. He was a jerk)
A few more weeks go by, Christmas break comes and goes and we keep talking over snapchat. The more we talk the more I realize I cant shake these feelings for her! "Should I ask her how she feels about me?" I wondered. "I know her mom and she doesnt want her to date and I will respect that. But we don't have to date? I could just tell her how I feel! But that would make things awkward if she doesn't feel the same."
Apparently somehow her mom found out that I liked her and she got excited and wanted her daughters to invite me over to hang out and I did. I got to know their whole family well and become close to her and her family. It was almost a bimonthly thing where I would come over to their house and hang out and I thought for certain that she felt the same.
The Campout
So I am a part of this thing called Pathfinders. Its a Christian organization where its basically Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts combined into one. Ella and I went to the same club and we both went to a campout. At this time we were really close. The school year was coming to a close in a few weeks and I hadn't heard her talking about anyone she was interested in and we talk alot so I would've known. With that In mind I made sure that this campout I was going to get to know her better.
The first morning we are all gathered around for church and believe it or not the topic was love! More specifically love languages and finding yours. I was shocked partially but happy aswell.. maybe I could use this to talk about my feelings...? I was mainly confused and anxious but we basically hung out that whole day. I had so much fun and If anything I was with my best friend making memories and having fun.
Later that night, after the evening worship talk was done and the songs were sung. It was just me and her sitting around the campfire talking. We talked for a while and then she asked, "whats your love language"
At first I was surprised, but I answered the question
"Quality Time" I said
She sat there and thought about it.
"What about you?" I asked.
"I would say quality time too." She answered.
And we sat there. Talking. Spending time in eachothers company. It was at this point that I realized the Ella was special to me. I know it sounds cliche, but at that time I didnt care about my feelings. All I thought was "I want her in my life, whether she is my significant other or not. I will be there for her."
The Heartbreak
The next morning it was time to leave. I was helping her and her younger sister pack a tent when they started talking about crushes.
"Yeah you have that one dude, whats his name.. Oh steven!" Ellas Sister exclained.
"Shut up!" Ella snapped. "Were just friends, yeah we know we both like eachother but we dont want to start anything right now"
"You've GOT TO BE KIDDING!!" I thought. "Again!? I have to go through this again? Maybe I should just give up. This is useless! I keep falling for her just to be heartbroken! Its not worth it! Dont cry... its ok. Oh shoot... Im riding back with her in a car! Dangit! I have to keep my composure for that long?"
"Enough of me ok!" Ella exclaimed. "Why do we have to talk about me?" Ella looked at me. "Who do you like?"
Yeah.. after having my heart broken. My crush that I was certain had feelings for me. Is now asking who I liked.. and wouldnt stop.
"Come on I am your best friend you have to tell me!" "Your like always so hidden about your feelings its ok to talk about how you feel" she kept on and on trying everything to break me and find out who I liked. Meanwhile I have my sunglasses over my eyes praying they dont see the tears I'm trying my hardest to hold in. I had it.. I wanted so bad to say I liked her just to shut her up, but I knew it would only make things worse. I thought about pur talk last night and how I said to myself that I would always be there for her. It took a while but she finally stopped asking and we left for home.
I know they say men arent supposed to cry but when I got home and layed down in my bed I cried. Just when I thought things were going my way it all came crashing down with insult to injury included in the painful fall.
Summer Camp
The end of school was here and I had accepted a job at a summer camp out of state. She had broken up with that one guy and I was barely over what happened on the campout. When she found out I was going to be gone all summer she was the only one who gave me a shocked and sad reaction.
I left for summer camp and we kept in contact. Quite often having late nights texting over snapchat. I was still heartbroken but I told myself I would be there for her and If anything Im going to be her friend. Even if she never knows I will still be by her side and be that person she can talk to when things are hard.
Summer camp ends, I return and come to find out they had transferred over to my church and were going there every weekend now. Which I thought was cool. Now I can see them every weekend instead of just school.
School starts, Im a senior now and she is no longer attending the Virtual school so Im seeing her alot less now. We still however kept touch on Snapchat.
The Challenge
You know those challenges on snapchat where you answer questions about a person. It could be your brother, sister, girlfriend, boyfriend, etc.. yeah when I texted my friend to get a person to answer the questions about. Yeah... I got crush... I still had feelings for Ella so I decided to answer the questions with her being the person. (I hope this all makes sense)
Not much time passes and I get a text from Ella.
"Ok.. you have to tell me who this person is!" She said
A little while later she Is being very persistent. I try changing the topic once and she wont have it. She will not stop asking me until she gets her answer. So I start dropping hints. Hoping she gets the idea that I like her.
After a few hints are dropped she is trying to be my wingman. I was done, I decided to drop one big hint before I was going to drop the conversation all together.
"If you just tell me who it is I can talk to her and try to see if she feels the same!" She said.
"Im afraid you cant" I replied.
"Why not?" She asked
"Unless you look in a mirror I dont see how you can" I said.
Silence... she knew.
After all this time, all this heartbreak, all this wondering what would happen if she knew. It all came down to this.. we talked a bit about what I would say if the feelings were mutual and how I wasnt interested in starting a relationship partially because I wasnt ready and partially becuase I wanted to respect her parents wishes. It was ok. She took it well but didnt say a whole lot.
It was like a huge weight had been lifted up off my shoulders. But it finally started to sink in.. she was visiting family.. I wasnt going to see her for 2 weeks. What will things be like in person. Will things be awkward? He siblings know, are they going to treat me differently?
Thankfully it didn't, but things were never the same after that. I had grown closer to her family and now we were hanging out alot more. We had this small group of friends that we hung out with alot and It was a blast! Like I said before Id never had a close group of friends that I could talk to and I finally was getting there.
Fast forward to the end of the school year and into summer. I decided to stay home that summer and not work for summer camp and we ended up hanging out with that group all summer long. Most days we were either talking or hanging out and I became really close with that group. I had thought that with the way our relationship has been going and how close we had gotten I was going to give it one last try.
The Big Campout!
It came time for the International Pathfinder Camporee! (Basically its a pathfinder event but 50,000 people go and camp in an airport its pretty dope!) And I was determined to make this camping trip a way to see how she felt towards me.
The first day! Going great! We hung out all day.
The second day! Hung out most of the day but I had work to do so I didnt hang out all day with her.
The third day. We barely hungout.
The rest of the week she basically ignored me and hung out with another group of guys.
The camp out was done and I was feeling down. I had noticed her hanging out with another one of my friends and I was a bit suspicious.
The Third Heartbreak..
It was a Saturday afternoon and we were hanging out in town. Ella and my friend were all over eachother all day. I was getting suspicious and was keeping a close eye on them. We went over to a friends house and it was then they just went all in. They were holding hands, cuddling by the pool, hugging like 24/7... I was done. I had enough. That night I barely got sleep. I couldn't help but check their Instagram feeds with the pictures of them two wondering if she still remembered how I felt. Did she ever feel that way about me? Am I just bad at reading signals? What the HECK!?!? HOW MANY TIMES AM I GOING TO FALL FOR THE GIRL WHO BROKE MY HEART NOW 3 DAMN TIMES!?
needless to say.. I barely got sleep. I couldn't last a minute without a million questions running through my mind. It was the first time I experienced depression like this and I didn't want to do ANYTHING. My brother saw that I was super depressed and told them to stop posting every minute on their Instagram stories how much they love eachother. Turns out she put all the peices together and texted me.
It was very simple..
She apologized for everything and said she didn't know that it hurt me.
Out of everything that she said.. one thing she said stood out to me.
"I want to thank you for everything you've done. You have been there for me like nobody has and I dont want to loose you as a friend. I love you and I want you in my life."
It made me realize that despite the heartache. I was her friend. That I promised myself that I would be there for her despite the circumstance. I never realized until then how much it meant to her. That no matter what I was there for her.
I later found out that when I said I liked her, she cried because to her it meant someone liked her for who she was. No benefits, not for her looks, or to have a status symbol. That someone was there for, her.
Fast forward a year.. because I fell in love with her, her mom made us hangout, because we hung out we dragged other people along in the friend group. Now, I have the closest group of friends I ever will have. I dont know how to describe the relationship with this group. All I know is if it weren't for this group, I wouldn't be where I am today. Two of them would be dead, or in severe depression. This group of people are family. And it took being there for someone through the hard times, to find my second family.
So why do I tell this story? Not to make you feel sorry for me or applaud me or anything. This is not a selfish story. Instead I want you to take this story, and know that sometimes it takes a low point in your life to get you to a better part. There were many nights where I question God why am I going through this? Why do I have to be so dumb and ignorant to fall for this girl 3 times just to be heartbroken? I believe it is because of that heartbreak that I got to where I am today. That I found my friends. That I learned what it meant to love unconditionally. And that is why, you never give up when its hard.
I know my story is very mild compared to others but let this, if anything, Inspire you to keep moving. Keep pushing. You dont know whats on the other side. It might be what you are looking for. You just havent gotten there yet. Hang in there!
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